Chapter 5 Environmental Science

integrated pest management
important pest management tool that uses a mix of methods such as traps, disease, and resistant plant, and natural pest-killing substances, as well as the introduction of predators to control pests
multicropping
practice of growing many crops together in the same field
host plant resistance
natural defense mechanisms of a plant, including physical adaptation, natural chemical resistance, and a tolerance to pest damage/defoliation, that ward off pests
biological control
using other living things that are enemies of a pest to control it
parasitoid
insect that develops on or within an insect host, ultimately killing the host
weed feeder
arthropod (such as an insect), other animal, or pathogen that feeds on weed pests
biorational pesticide
naturally occuring compound or chemical such as a toxin or growth regulator derived from a living organism
insecticidal soap
any of the potassium fattu acids soaps used to control many plant pest
bacillus thuringiensts
gram-positive, soil-dwelling, bacterium, commonly used as a biological alternative to a pesticide
botanical insecticide
pesticide made of plant parts – used against insects
flies, bunnies, mice, weeds, fungi, microorganisms, bacteria, viruses
pests
nematicides
roundworm control
goals of the PAIPM (PA’s Integrated Pest Management program)
encourage production of food and forestry products while decreasing the exposure of workers to harmful pesticides, to reduce air and groundwater contamination, reduce/eliminate pesticide residues on crops, cut # of insecticide-resistant pests, make pest control more cost-effective, maximize the use of natural organisms in pest control
goals of the school IPM
manage pests on school grounds, teach PA students about the benefits, risks, and interdisciplinary nature of IPM
PA’s state tree
Eastern Hemlock
pests of PA
gypsy moth caterpiller, black knot, elm spanworm
APHIS is and what does it do?
US Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service – responsible for patrolling US ports and inspecting imported goods for exotic pests
PA devastating tree diseases
white pine blister rust, chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease
PA exotic insects (pests)
European gypsy moth, balsam woolly adelgid, pine shoot moth, Asian long-horned beetle, starlings, Asian lady beetle, European brown spruce long-horned beetle
order of organic foods sold
fresh produce, packaged groceries, dairy foods, bulk and frozen, soy-based, beverages, meats, candy/snack foods
invasive plants of PA
mile-a-minute weed, purple loosestrife
6 steps in the IPM system
properly identify pest damage and responsible pests, learn pest and host life cycles and biology, monitor or sample the environment for pest population, establish action threshold – economic, health, or aesthetic, choose an appropriate combination of management tactics, evaluate and record results
physical methods
prevents pest access to the host or area – if pest is already present, remove them by some means
beneficial parasitoids
wasps, flies
pathogen examples
bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa
microbial insecticides or bio-insecticides
pathogens spread artificially or or incorporated into sprays
biological methods
parasitoids, predators, pathogens, weed feeders
chemical methods
conventional pesticides, conventional household pesticides, conventional agricultural pesticides
biorational pesticides
microbial pesticides, insecticidal soap, botanical insecticides, neem, water spray
gov. agencies that try to stop the spread of pests in the US
the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), US Customs
IMP tactics
cultural methods, physical methods, genetic methods, biological methods, chemical methods, regulatory control
3 main things on a label
precautionary statement, active ingredients, other (inert) ingredients
benefits
safer for people/environment, less pesticide residue on food, less chance of pesticide resistance, less damage to nontarget organisms, lower costs
drawbacks
may alter local ecosystems, can contaminate environment, does not eliminate all pests, may lose more crops, can require intensive planning
pyramid of IPM tactics
cultural, physical/mechanical, biological, chemical (biorational pesticides), conventional pesticides