Tactical planning – 1-2 years, middle managers, often department objectives smaller goals eg hr training everyone in 12 months
Operational planning – short term, day to day planning, front line ( lower ) managers eg daily rosters
O – organising
L – leading
– All plans should be aligned with mission and vision statements
– Planning is carried out by all levels of managers
2. Analyse the current situation (SWOT)
3. Develop alternatives – develops a range of plans and assess which one would be most effective
4. Implement the plan
5. Monitor and review results ( through KPI’s)
eg mangers need to coordinate things like
2. Classifying and grouping activities – Similar activities must be grouped together. This improves efficiency by enabling the most appropriate allocation of resources.
3. Assigning work and delegating authority – Deciding who will carry out the task, and who has the responsibility to ensure that the work is done. Effective delegation can improve productivity.
– Authority and decision making is spread throughout the team
– Authority is given to less experienced team members with a mentor available
– Establishing staff in productive working environments
– Evaluating available resources and allocating them appropriately to tasks
– Determining what additional resources are needed and how to obtain them
– Delegating tasks and responsibilities
– Coordination of machinery and physical resources to optimise work
– Staff authority – Is advisory authority, which takes the form of advice or recommendations.
– Functional authority – is the right to direct or control special activities that are under the manager’s span of control. E.g. the human resources department may create policies guiding an organisation’s compliance with workplace relations.
Informational skills – a thorough understanding of the business. This will help the manager recognise problems and find solutions. Good ICT (Information and communication technologies) skills are also necessary.
Decision-making skills – involves identifying & defining problems and opportunities and choosing a solution; the ability to make sound decisions quickly and assessing the risks associated with decisions.
– Social maturity – the ability to understand the people they are going to lead (personalities, values, attitudes and emotions)
– An orientation towards internal motivation (drive) and achievement. To them, the sense of accomplishment is very important. After achieving one goal, they are driven to achieve the next.
– Self-confidence and good communication. Their communication skills are used to promote a feeling of mutual cooperation, motivation and support.
– Interpersonal qualities such as visionary skills, ability to inspire and establish trust while retaining humility in their achievements.
– The ability to take responsibility seriously, use power effectively, be a good role model and make decisions that are fair and just.
2. Expert power employs skills, knowledge and information, which a person of power can wield in order to influence others.
3. Reward power involves the ability to reward a person in order to gain compliance to a certain way of thinking or behaving.
4. Coercive power involves the ability to punish others when they do not engage in desired behaviour.
5. Referent power means the leader is liked and respected by subordinates, peers and supervisors and gains power through this.
2. Measuring performance – is done through observation, establishing quantitative and qualitative measures and benchmarks, and comparing these to the standard established, target, objectives or prior period.
3. Identifying and investigating any deviations – these may be positive (e.g. an increase in sales) or negative (e.g. a decrease in sales).
4. Making changes where necessary to ensure that the objectives established in step 1 are being achieved.
2. – Establishing performance standards – Standards are created when objectives are set during the planning process. A standard is any guideline established as the basis of measurement. E.g. in the car industry cars would need to be manufactured according to environmental and safety standards relating to emissions and passenger safety.
3. – Time controls – These controls relate to deadlines and time constraints. E.g. an individual car company would need to ensure that it is able to produce a particular number of cars per day in order to meet demand and maintain its profit margin.
4. – Cost controls – These cost controls help ensure standards are met. Employee performance controls focus on behaviour of individuals and groups of employees. These may include staff absences and workplace accidents. E.g. if there are set standards on health and safety within a company, such as a building organisation, then there should be fewer workplace accidents and subsequently less cost to the company in the form of WorkCover premiums and claims,
5. Laissez- Faire
Management controls everything.
Make decisions = tell staff. Task-orientated.
– High degree of control (centralised)
– Centralised decision making
– Clearly defined employee roles and responsibilities
– Top-down communication: centralised
– Task orientated, focused on getting results
– Shows little trust in employees
Make decisions = sell idea to staff. Employees aren’t given chance to share ideas/ give feedback.
– One – way top down
– Management still has full control
– Centralised decision making
Manager willing to listen to staff.
– Seeks opinions of employees before making decisions
– Centralised control
– Centralised decision-making
– Two-way communication:
Bottom-up: suggestions and feedback
– Some employees encouraged to provide opinions and contribute
– Management still has full control
Makes organisation more responsive to change. Employee- oriented style.
– Two way
– Joint control by management and staff
– De-centralised, spread between management and staff
Staff is empowered to make own objectives, solve own problems and decisions. Employees are highly educated/skilled.
– Two way – bottom up
– Often unclear of who has control
– Decision making and problem solving
– Team leadership
– Time management
– Stress management
– Emotional intelligence.
– Direct and clear lines of communication from upper to lower levels
– Workers’ roles are clearly set out allowing accountability and ease of monitoring
-Employees can focus on work.
Appropriate when staff are lower skilled.
– Low motivation
Too task-focused, doesn’t take into account staff needs.
– Poor employee to employer relations, resulting in poor morale / higher staff turn over and staff absenteeism
– Difficulty in establishing a
– Ideas and skills of employees
are not utilised – alienates / holds back highly skilled staff
– Clear guidelines on staff’s expectations. Effective in time constraints, high risk, difficult decision.
– Employees are informed of reasons for decisions.
– Employees are more inclined to
accept decisions such as employment agreements as they are persuaded of its benefits
-Employees are more trusting of management, and thus more positive towards the organisation
-Workers opinions and feelings not being considered.
-Low levels of motivation may open the possibility for resistance to decisions
– Promotes shared sense of goal achievement
– Employees are more motivated because they are listened too – increase of employees level of job satisfaction
– helps organisations identify talented employees
– Can encourage time wasting – as it is time consuming if many stakeholders and employees are consulted
– Employees may still not feel values if they have provided their ideas, but these are overlooked
– Employees feel a sense of ownership and empowerment as they are now decision makers
– Creates good employee relations and job satisfaction
– Promotes team work and synergy
– Lack of contribution by all employees, as some would rather not be involved in decision making or their ideas are not implemented
– Can be time consuming seeking the involvement of groups or teams
– Conflict may arise when there are varying viewpoints
– Strong motivation, empowerment and job satisfaction for employees
– Suits project based tasks when staff are highly skilled
– Good environment for encouraging creativity and teamwork
– Decentralised and flatter structure encourages good communication, as ideas are openly discussed
– Does not suit employees who are unskilled or need structure and routine tasks
– Some employees may feel unsettled by the freedom of this style
– Technical – manager must be knowledgeable in specific field to be able to run business effectively and make appropriate decisions
Analytical – manager needs to have specific skills in order to solve complex problems
Negotiation – managers and employees need to negotiate proposed ideas
Emotional intelligence – manager can identify high level of skill amongst their employees when working together in making decisions
Time management – manager needs to set deadlines and work under pressure and monitor how long tasks are taking
1. Convey vision – communicate clear vision
2. Set example – show behaviours that reflect values and standards that are desired in workplace
3. Mentor – provide direction and guidance
4. Promote creativity – encourages employees to be creative
5. Be a story teller – tell stories of success
6. Offer feedback – tell employees what they are doing right
7. Manage by excellence – focus on what is being done right
8. Use rewards – recognise desired behaviours aim to increase frequency
9. Create a culture of participation – let people join in
10. Empower staff – work to develop employees
Level of staff satisfaction – from surveys, are they happy?
Level of staff absenteeism – low or high? how often are people not showing up to work?
Motivation – are staff motivated to work?
Training and development – is this being provided?