Chapter 4: Socialization

the process by which people internalize the values, beliefs, and norms required to become functioning members of a given society is known as:
socialization
the story of the abused child named Anna teaches lessons about the importance of which of the following influences on human development?
human interaction
ultimately we hold people responsible for their behavior precisely because they can exercise choice over what they do. this speaks to the limits of socialization that sociologists refer to as:
agency
if we place nature and nurture at opposite ends on a continuum, most sociologists would fall toward the nurture end of the continuum. Which statement best explains this tendency?
Sociologists focus on, and as a result give primary weight to, the social environment on explaining how people think, feel, and behave
children like Anna, who have experienced long periods of isolation, illustrate how:
“human nature” is the result of a complex relationship between nature (biology) and nurture (the social environment)
Which theory uses game playing to understand the development of self?
Mead’s role-playing theory
which theorist argued that other people essentially provide us with “a social mirror,” and that our interpretations of this mirror affect how we see ourselves?
charles horton cooley
concepts such as I, me, and generalized other are part of which theorist’s work?
George Herbert Mead
which of the following is considered an advanced stage of development, according to George herbert Mead?
the game stage
which of the following provides a good example of the generalized other?
a child is taught to say “bless you” every time someone sneezes in her home. when she is at the grocery store one day, the child says “bless you” to a complete stranger who sneezes in the checkout line.
people and groups who influence our orientation to life, our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors are:
agents of socialization
according to research by Kohn and Schooler (1983) and Laureau (2002), parents of different social classes socialize their children differently. which of the following statements best describes these differences?
middle-class parents are more likely to stress independence and self-direction; working-class parents are more likely to instill respect for authority
expected conformity, especially among teenage friends, is known as:
peer pressure
the popular television show Sesame Street was created with the explicit purpose of providing educational opportunities for low-income children. being that this show was successful, we can argue that:
the media serves as a powerful socializing agent
annette laureau, author of unequal childhoods, makes a compelling case for the existence of different parenting values and practices between working-class and middle-class families. which of the following statements best summarizes what she found?
class differences, played out in the daily routines of parenting, have a powerful impact on children’s life chances
a drastic type of adult socialization that may occur when adults change environments is known as:
resocialization
which of the following would be the best example of a total institution?
a convent
a recognizable social position that an individual occupies, such as “student” or “professor,” is known as a:
status
_______ refers to a social position while _____ designates socially expected behavior
Status;role
Venus Williams is one of the top women’s tennis players in the world. this status overrides all of her other statuses and is known as her:
master status
a single mother who is experiencing incompatibility within her role, such as dealing with sleep, deprivation and spending quality time with her children, may be experiencing which of the following?
role strain
sandra’s boss asked her to work this weekend, but sandra feels obligated to attend a family reunion and she has to study for an exam. she is having trouble deciding which “activity” to let go. sandra is experiencing:
role conflict
which of the following is the best example of an achieved status?
a newly ordained minister in a pentecostal church
involuntary statuses that we born into are called:
ascribed statuses
the expectation that barbie dolls are for girls and G.I. joe dolls are for boys are examples of:
gender roles
most sociologists (and biologists) argue that race is a human invention, or is socially constructed. which of the following statements does NOT highlight how race is socially constructed?
racial boundaries provide an obvious and natural means of dividing the world
the three basic tenets of symbolic interactionism theory include all of the following except:
human beings inherit mutual understandings of symbols across cultures, times, and social changes
according to goffman, we all try to make good impressions on others and we actively work to ensure that others believe they are doing the same. he calls this:
impression management
a good deal of impression management can be said to involve “teamwork.” Which of the following is not an example of teamwork?
pedestrians on a street who gather to watch someone jump from a building
according to impression management, the backstage arena would include:
where we are our “private selves” and where the real story takes place
according to goffman, the esteem in which an individual is held by others is known as:
face
your professor drank too much over the weekend and tripped and sprained his ankle. when asked about his injury in class the next day, the professor replied, “I sprained my ankle playing soccer with the kids.” this is an example of what?
saving face
front-stage mistakes, such as if your sociology professor accidentally trips as she walks into class one day, are known as:
breaches
saying “hello” when answering the telephone signals the start of an encounter in the first bracket and is known to dramaturgists as:
the opening
two young men are on the elevator together. after briefly acknowledging each other’s presence, they “politely ignore” each other for the remainder of the ride. goffman would refer to this behavior as an example of:
civic inattention
unconscious signals of our true feelings, such as nonverbal behaviors, are known by goffman as:
given off-gestures
harold garfinkel developed an approach to study human interaction that focused on how people produce (and maintain) a mutually shared social order. this method was called:
ethnomethodology
if your professor asked you to do a “breaching experiment,” you might do which of the following?
ask a stranger to tie your shoes
the harlem children’s zone (HCZ) a comprehensive program inspired by Head Start, aims to help low-income children become successful adults. the HCZ program differs from the Head Start program in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
the HCZ program is focused on short-term cognitive and educational goals