What is motivation, and how is the idea relevant to consumer behavior?
The state of being refers to the processes that lead people to behave the way they do. This state of tension that is created from the need provokes us to act upon our wants to reduce the tension.
Describe three types of motivational conflict, citing an example of each from a current advertising campaigns.
(+) Approach – Approach (+)
-choosing between two positive outcomes. finding two CDs you like and buying one.
(+) Approach – Avoidance (-)
-want a fur coat, feel bad about killing animal. fake fur. guilty pleasure
(-) Avoidance – Avoidance (-)
-fixing an older car or purchasing a new one
Explain the difference between a need and a want.
The need to shred powder. I want ski Jumps, rails, glades. Mike wants to ski steeps, moguls, groomers.
What is cognitive dissonance?
The theory that people have a need for order and consistency in their lives, that a state of dissonance (tension) when beliefs and behaviors conflict with one another.
Used to deriving great happiness from skiing, wanting to ski in the fall. shipping in snow from ice rinks to ski a rail.
Name the levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and give an example of a marketing appeal that is focused at each level.
Self actualization – self-fulfilling, enriching experiences. hobbies, travel, education.
Ego needs – Prestige, status, accomplishment. cars, credit cards, country clubs, liquor
Belongingness – love, friendship, acceptance by others. clothing, clubs, drinks.
Safety – Security, shelter, protection. Insurance, fire alarms, retirement.
Physioogical – Water, sleep, food. medicine, staple items, generics.
What is consumer involvement? How does it relate to motivation?
C.I. is “a person’s perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs, values, and interests.” The level of motivation to buy increases if the consumer’s involvement is greater. Kristina + Green Day = scary
Why would marketers want their consumers to enter a flow state when shopping for their products?
This state refers to a consumer actively participating with the product rather than doing it out of habit. Shopping for a DSLR, consumer should be a little more informed than when they are buying milk at the grocery store.
Flow state means you have the customer’s eyes and ears. Sell your product.
List three types of consumer involvement, give an example of each type.
With Advertising – interactive websites, the clymb reference $20
With Products – Merchandise, apparel, ski companies
With purchase decisions – influence of price on brand choice, amount of info searched, time deliberating alternatives
What are some strategies marketers can use to increase consumers’ involvement with their products?
-Advertising during programming where viewer are highly engaged, will be more receptive to process the information
-Mass customization, market to the individual. customizing a PC, m&m with faces to connect with audience.
-Getting the customer to participate in the process of a products life cycle. coke / maroon 5
What are values, and why should marketers care?
A value is a belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite. Consumers value some products over others. Brand loyalty enforces these values.
What is the difference between enculturation and acculturation?
Enculturation is the process of learning beliefs and values from your own culture.
Acculturation is the process of learning from another culture.
Lewiston’s Franco-American population.
What is the LOHAS, and why are people who follow this lifestyle important?
Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability. The market for socially conscious products is estimated at $200 billion.
Describe two techniques marketers haven used to measure values?
Rokeach Value Survey – includes set of instrumental values to achieve terminal values
List of Values (LOV) Scale – identifies 9 consumer segments based on the values members endorse and relates each value to diff in consumption behavior
What is materialism, and why is it relevent to marketing?
the importance people attach to worldly possessions; consumers vary in the importance they attach & this in turn influences their priorities and behaviors
What is the difference between an emic and an etic perspective on globalization?
Emic suggests that each culture is unique from one another whereas etic refers to the industrialized world as being homogenous, more similar than not.
Why is the United States a net exporter of popular culture?
because other countries are adopting our Westernized lifestyle
What country provides an example of a transitional economy?
China – it struggles to adapt from a controlled, centralized economy to a free-market system
Define creolization and provide an example.
occurs when foreign influences integrate with local meanings; Christianity adopted pagan Christmas trees