Chapter 4 & 12

operating
The term ____ system is defined as system software that acts as the master controller for all of the activities that take place within a computer system
desktop
A ____ operating system is one that is designed for a personal computer
bootstrap
The operating system’s small ____ program is stored in ROM and provides the instructions needed to load the core parts into memory when the system starts.
kernel
The ____ provides the most essential operating system services, such as memory management and file access.
A) kernel
Vista
Windows ____ features 64-bit support, enhanced security, and more flexible file management than previous versions of the operating system.
Aqua
The Mac OS X operating system features a GUI called ____.
Linux
____ is rather unique because it is distributed under the terms of a General Public License, which allows everyone to make copies for their own use, to give to others, or to sell.
True
A file is defined as a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium
.
Which of the following is permitted in the Windows file-naming conventions?
False
Current versions of Windows support file names of up to 257 characters long.
C
The main hard disk drive is usually assigned the device letter ____.
subdirectories
A root directory can be subdivided into smaller lists, called ____.
graphical user
A(n) ____ interface features menus and icons that you can manipulate with the click of a mouse.
Windows Explorer
The ____ utility allows you to view a list of files, move them to different storage devices, copy them, rename them, and delete them.
file
The operating system uses a ____ system to keep track of the names and locations of files that reside on a storage medium, such as a hard disk.
defragmentation
Your roommate wants to regain peak performance on her disk. You suggest she uses a(n) ____ utility to rearrange the files on a disk so that they are stored in contiguous clusters.
Registry
The ____ is an important group of files used by the Windows operating system to store configuration information about all of the devices and software installed on a computer system.
A) Index
true
To delete data from a disk in such a way that no one can ever read it, you can use special file shredder software that overwrites “empty” sectors with random 1s and 0s.
incremental
A(n) ____ backup makes a backup of the files that were added or changed since the last backup.
resource
refers to any component that is required to perform work
the processor is a computer’s main resource
multitasking
provides process and memory management services that allow two or more task, jobs, programs to run simultaneously
multithreading
allows multiple parts, or threads, to run simultaneously
multiprocessing
capability supports a division of labor among all the processing unit
buffers
collect and hold data while the computer is busy with other tasks.
single user operation system
deals with one set input devices-those that can be controlled by one user at a time
multiuser operating system
allow a single, centralized computer to deal with simultaneous input, output and processing request from many users
server operating system
provides tools for managing distributed networks, e-mail server and web hosting sites
desktop operating system
is designed for a desktop or laptop personal computer
mobile operating system
is designed for devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. mobile OS support touch screen
kernel
provides essential operating system services, such as memory management and file access
kernel stays in the RAM all the time your computer is on ‘
boot process
the time that you turn your computer and the time it is ready for you to use/
user interface
can be define as the combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other
command-line interface
requires users to type memorized command to run programs and accomplish task.
can be accessed from most operating system
graphical user interface
provides a way to select menu options and manipulate graphical objects displayed on the screen using a mouse or gesture .
desktop
is a visual work area that covers the entire screen and remains in the background throughout a computing session
includes a taskbar or dock
start screen
popular on handheld devices, appears at the end of the boot process and whenever it is invoked by the user
dialog box
displays the option associated with a command
data fork
is similar to files in the operating system. it contains data, such as the text document, the graphics for a photo
resource fork
is a companion file that stores information about data in the data fork, such as the file type and application that created it
android
is a mobile operating system that is a popular platform for tablet computers,
push technology
is which notifications are automatically sent to a device
reserved words
are used to commands or special identifiers you cannot use these words alone as file name.
disk partition
is a section of a hard disk drive that is treated as separate storage unit
directory
containing a list of files
root directory
on a PC, the root directory is identified by the device letter follow by a backslash
for example, the root directory can be subdivided into smaller list. each list is called a subdirectory
memory leak
is when a application request memory but never releases it
can cause an application not to function properly
file header
is a section of data at the beginning of a file that contains information about a file, such as the date it was created, the date it was last updated, its size and its file type
file tag
describe the file contents
meta data
describe the contents of a file, essentially means “data about data”
file management utility
such as the windows file explore or the Mac OS X Finder
File explorer `
a utility program bundle with the window operating system and designed to help you organize and manipulate the files stored on your computer
library
is a similar to a folder only in the sense that it can be used to group similar files;
formatting
process creates the equivalent of electronics storage bins by dividing a disk in tracks and then further dividing each tracks into sectors.
disc mastering
is the process of creating a CD,DVD,BD by selecting all the files and then copying them in a single session.
packet writing
is a recording technology that lets you record in multiple sessions
file system
to keep track of the names and location of files that reside on a storage medium, such as a hard disk
backup
stores the files needed to recover data that’s been wiped out by operator, error, viruses, or hardware failures.
restore
Backups allow you to restore data from a backup to the original storage location or to a replacement devices
linux
is a operating system distributed along with its source code under the term of GPL ( general public license)
a Linux distribution is a download that contains the Linux kernel, system utilities, graphical user interface, application and an installation routine
synchronization
compares the content of files on two devices and makes them the same, it can be used for backup because it dynamically maintains a parallel sets of files on your computer’s hard disk and your backup device.
full system backup
includes a copy of every file stored on your computer’s hard drive. in addition to data files, a full system backup include copies of all installed programs, setting, and the operating system,
boot disk
is a removable storage medium containg the operating system files needed to boot your computer without accessing the hard disk
recovery disk
(referred to as recovery CD)
is a bootable CD,DVD, or other media that contains a complete copy of your computer’s hard disk as it existed when the computer was new.
registry
is an important group of files used by windows operating system to store configuration information
restore point
is a snapshot of your computer settings
disk image
is bit-by-bit copy of the data from all sectors of a disk
disk image utilities creates an exact clone of the original disk
Key word or command
is a word with a predefined meaning for the compiler or interpreter that translates each line of program code into machine language
low-level language
includes commands specific to a particular CPU or microprocessor family
programs
can have millions of lines codes
high- level languages
use command words and grammar based on human languages
first-generation languages
machine language
Second-generation languages
assembly languages
third-generation languages
easy-to-remember command words
fourth-generation languages
more closely resembles human language
fifth-generation languages
based on declarative programming paradigm
programing paradigm
refers to a way of conceptualizing and structuring the task computer performs
known information
helps the computer to solve a program
problem statement
defines certain elements that be manipulated to achieve result or goal

3 characteristic:
> accept assumptions
>known information
> variables Vs. constants

programming languages
are made up of keywords and grammar rules designed for creating computer instruction
program editor
is a type of text editor specially designed for entering codes for computer programs
VDE
Visual development environment
provides programmers with tools to build substantial section of a program
a computer program must be tested to ensure that it works correctly
debugger
can help a programmer read through lines of code and solve problems
remarks or comments
are a form of documentation that programmers inserts into the program code
SD
Software development kit
is a collection of language-specific programming tools that enables a programmer to develop application for a specific computer platform
IDE
integrated development environment
is a type of SDK that packages a set of development tools into a sleek programming application
Syntax error
occurs when an instruction does not follow the syntax rules or grammar
runtime errors
a runtime error occurs when a programs runs
logic errors
a logic error is a type of runtime error in the logic or design of a program
API
is a set of application program or operating system function that programmers can access from within the programs they create
C, java, and C++
are the most popular programing languages
algorithms
set up steps for carrying out a task that can be written down and implemented
procedural paradigm
to conceptualize the solution to a problem as a sequence of steps
procedural language
machine language, assembly language, BASIC COBOL Fortran C
structured English
is a subset of English language with a limited selection of sentences structured that reflect processing activities.
pseudocode
is a notational system for algorithms that has been describe as a mixture of English and your favorite programming language
sequence control structure
change the order in which instructions are carried out by directing the computer to execute an instruction elsewhere in the program
subroutine, procedure, or function
is a section of code that is part of a program, but is not included in the main sequential execution path.
selection control structure
tells a computer what to do based on whether a condition is IF…..THE…. ELSE command
repletion control structure
directs the computer to repeat one or more instructions until a certain condition is met.
high level
machine language
control structures
are instructions that specify the sequence in which a program is executed
flow chart
Is a graphical representation of the way a computer should progress from one instruction to the next when it performs a task
walkthrough
before finalizing the algorithm for a computer program, you should perform a walk through.
sequential execution
the first instruction in the program is executed first, then the second instruction in the program written in the BASIC programming language .
object
is a unit data that represents an abstract or real world entity, such as a person, place or thing.
class
is a template for a group of objects with similar characteristics.
class attribute
defines the characteristics of a set of objects
method
is a segment of code that defines an action
> collect input, perform calculation, etc.
>a method is activated by a message
declarative paradigm
describe aspect of a problem that lead to a solution
buffer overflow
is a condition in which data in memory exceeds its expected boundaries and flows into memory areas intended for use by other data.
event driven
focuses on selecting user interface elements and defining events-handling routines that are triggered by various mouse or keyboard activities
declarative
focuses on the use of facts and rules to describe a problem
what I C
C is typically hard disk drive.