Chapter 37: Vehicle Extrication and Special Rescue

1. Extrication is MOST accurately defined as:
A. using heavy equipment to access a patient.
B. dismantling an automobile to remove a victim.
C. removal from a dangerous situation or position.
D. immobilizing a patient before moving him or her
Answer: C
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1368
2. Your primary concern when arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash is:
A. gaining access to the patient(s).
B. requesting additional resources.
C. immediately beginning triage.
D. surveying the area for hazards.
Answer: D
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1368
3. The scene size-up at a motor vehicle crash or other incident:
A. is an ongoing process until the incident is terminated.
B. should be performed by the most experienced EMT.
C. is a quick visual assessment of the scene prior to entry.
D. determines who is allowed to safely enter the hot zone.
Answer: A
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1369
4. Situational awareness is MOST accurately defined as:
A. an ongoing process of information gathering and scene evaluation to determine appropriate strategies and tactics.
B. the ability to recognize any possible issues once you arrive at the scene and act proactively to avoid a negative impact.
C. predicting the presence of certain hazards at the scene after receiving initial information from the dispatcher.
D. performing an initial scan of the scene in order to identify hazards that will pose an immediate threat to you and your crew.
Answer: B Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1369
5. Upon arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash, you can see three patients, one who is entrapped in his car and two who have been ejected from their vehicle. You should:
A. begin triage to determine injury severity.
B. call medical control for further direction.
C. immediately request additional resources.
D. request law enforcement for traffic control.
Answer: C
Question Type: Critical Thinking
Page: 1369
6. In order to evaluate hazards present at the scene and determine the number of patients, you should:
A. request the fire department at all scenes.
B. perform a 360° walk-around of the scene.
C. use the information provided by dispatch.
D. interview bystanders present at the scene.
Answer: B Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1369-1370
7. When functioning at the scene of a motor vehicle crash in which a patient will require complex extrication, you should enter the vehicle and provide care to the patient:
A. only if the patient has experienced a major injury.
B. after rescue personnel have cut the battery cables.
C. after receiving approval from the extrication officer.
D. only after you believe the vehicle has been stabilized.
Answer: C Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1370
8. _____________ is defined as the ability to reach the patient.
A. Access
B. Rescue
C. Extrication
D. Disentanglement
Answer: A
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1370
9. Which of the following is a typical function of the rescue team?
A. initial triage and patient prioritization
B. shutting off power to downed electrical lines
C. providing safe entry and access to patients
D. providing emergency care during extrication
Answer: C Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1370
10. Common duties and responsibilities of EMS personnel at the scene of a motor vehicle crash include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. keeping bystanders at a safe distance.
B. assigning all patients a triage category.
C. preparing all patients for transportation.
D. continual assessment of critical patients.
Answer: A
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1370
11. A unique consideration when dealing with a hybrid vehicle is that:
A. you must locate the ignition switch and cut it to prevent a fire.
B. cutting the battery cables often results in an explosion or fire.
C. rescue teams should disconnect the positive battery cable first.
D. the battery has higher amperes than a traditional vehicle battery.
Answer: D Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1371
12. The rescue team is in the process of extricating a 40-year-old male from his truck. The patient’s wife, who was uninjured in the crash, is calmly observing the extrication and asks you if her husband will be all right. You should:
A. ensure that she is in a safe area, away from the scene.
B. allow her to observe the extrication and keep her calm.
C. ask her follow-up questions about the crash.
D. allow her to talk to her husband during the extrication.
Answer: A
Question Type: Critical Thinking
Page: 1371
13. When determining the exact location and position of the patient(s) in a wrecked vehicle, you and your team should routinely consider all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. the position of the crashed vehicle.
B. hazards that pose a risk to rescuers.
C. the make and model of the vehicle.
D. the possibility of vehicle instability.
Answer: C
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1372
14. Which of the following statements regarding the rapid extrication technique is correct?
A. The only indication for performing a rapid extrication is if the patient is not entrapped and is in cardiac arrest.
B. Rapid extrication involves the use of heavy equipment to disentangle a patient from his or her crashed vehicle.
C. It involves rapidly removing a patient from his or her vehicle after immobilizing him or her with a short backboard.
D. The rapid extrication technique is indicated if the scene is unsafe and the patient is not entrapped in his or her vehicle.
Answer: D
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1372
15. Which of the following is the BEST example of gaining simple access to a patient?
A. using a pry bar to open a damaged door
B. entering a vehicle through an open window
C. breaking glass to gain access to the patient
D. removing the roof to access a critical patient
Answer: B
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1372
16. You are attempting to gain access to a patient who was injured when his truck struck another vehicle from behind. The patient is conscious and alert, but is screaming in pain. You try to open the door, but it is locked. You should:
A. break the window and unlock the door.
B. ask the patient if he can unlock the door.
C. request the rescue team to extricate him.
D. use a pry bar to attempt to open the door.
Answer: B
Question Type: Critical Thinking
Page: 1372
17. In contrast to simple access, complex access:
A. involves forcible entry into a vehicle.
B. is a skill commonly taught to EMTs.
C. does not involve the breaking of glass.
D. often involves simply unlocking a door.
Answer: A Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1373
18. Once entrance and access to the patient have been provided, you should:
A. allow extrication to commence.
B. perform a primary assessment.
C. administer high-flow oxygen.
D. begin treating his or her injuries.
Answer: B
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1373
19. A 50-year-old female is entrapped in her passenger car after it struck a tree. As the rescue team is preparing to extricate her, you quickly assess her and determine that she is breathing shallowly and that her radial pulse is absent. You should:
A. maintain spinal stabilization as she is extricated.
B. secure her with a short backboard or vest device.
C. stabilize her condition before extrication begins.
D. begin CPR as the rescue team begins extrication.
Answer: A
Question Type: Critical Thinking
Page: 1373-1374
20. A 19-year-old female has just been extricated from her severely damaged car. She is on a long backboard and has been moved to a place of safety. As your partner maintains manual stabilization of her head, you perform a rapid assessment. The patient is unconscious, has slow and shallow respirations, and has bilaterally closed femur deformities. You should:
A. stabilize her legs with the pneumatic antishock garment (PASG).
B. apply 100% oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask.
C. obtain baseline vital signs and transport at once.
D. direct your partner to begin ventilatory assistance.
Answer: D
Question Type: Critical Thinking
Page: 1373-1374
21. Disentanglement involves:
A. removing a patient from a dangerous position.
B. the use of simple access tools such as a pry bar.
C. extrication techniques that EMTs are trained in.
D. gaining access to a patient in a crashed vehicle.
Answer: A
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1374
22. A 33-year-old restrained driver of a motor vehicle crash is awake and alert, complaining only of neck pain. The vehicle is stable and no hazards are present. When removing this patient from his vehicle, you should:
A. use the rapid extrication technique.
B. immobilize him with a vest-style device.
C. maintain slight traction to his neck area.
D. adequately secure him to a long backboard.
Answer: B
Question Type: Critical Thinking
Page: 1374
23. As you and your team are removing an unconscious patient from her wrecked car, you note that she has closed deformities to both of her legs and a deformity to her left humerus. You should:
A. realign the deformed extremities before continuing.
B. splint the deformities before moving her any further.
C. support the injured extremities and continue removal.
D. assess distal neurovascular functions in her extremities.
Answer: C
Question Type: Critical Thinking
Page: 1374
24. When removing a critically injured patient from his or her vehicle, you should:
A. remove him or her using a short backboard.
B. move him or her in one fast, continuous step.
C. protect the cervical spine during the entire process.
D. release c-spine control to facilitate rapid removal.
Answer: C
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1375
25. Which of the following situations would require the use of a specialized rescue team?
A. a patient trapped in a cave or a confined space
B. a patient in a badly damaged car, not entrapped
C. an obese patient who must be moved to the ambulance
D. a patient found floating facedown in a swimming pool
Answer: A
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1376
26. If a technical rescue team is required at the scene, but is not present when you arrive, you should:
A. don personal protective equipment and begin the rescue process.
B. check with the incident commander to ensure that the team is en route.
C. remain with your ambulance until the rescue team arrives at the scene.
D. have fire personnel initiate the rescue process if they are at the scene.
Answer: B Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1376
27. A hiker was injured when he fell approximately 20′ from a cliff. When you arrive at the scene, a member of the technical rescue group escorts you to the patient, who is positioned on a steep incline. The MOST appropriate method of immobilizing and moving the patient to the ambulance is to:
A. immobilize his spine with a long backboard and place him in a basket stretcher.
B. immobilize him to a long backboard and use the four-person carry to move him.
C. apply a vest-style immobilization device and move him using a stair chair device.
D. immobilize him with a short backboard and place him on the ambulance stretcher.
Answer: A
Question Type: Critical Thinking
Page: 1377
28. The EMT’s role at the scene of a search and rescue attempt is to:
A. accompany search team members and provide care.
B. reassure the family members of the missing person.
C. report to a location where the patient will be carried.
D. stand by at the command post until the person is located.
Answer: D
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1377
29. Trench collapses usually involve large areas of falling dirt that weigh approximately _______ per cubic foot.
A. 50 lb
B. 100 lb
C. 150 lb
D. 200 lb
Answer: B
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1378
30. Which of the following statements regarding trench rescue is correct?
A. Rescue vehicles should park at least 250′ from the scene.
B. Ground vibration is a primary cause of secondary collapse.
C. A trench deeper than 10′ should be shored prior to entry.
D. Most deaths involving cave-ins are caused by head injury.
Answer: B Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1378
31. You are standing by at the scene of a hostage situation when the incident commander advises you that one of his personnel has been shot. The patient is lying supine in an open area and is not moving. As the SWAT team escorts you to the patient, you should:
A. limit your primary assessment to airway and breathing only.
B. treat only critical injuries before moving him to a safe place.
C. grab him by the clothes and immediately move him to safety.
D. perform a rapid assessment and move him to a place of safety.
Answer: C
Question Type: Critical Thinking
Page: 1379
32. Upon arriving at the scene of a law enforcement tactical situation, you should ensure your own safety and then:
A. begin immediate triage of any injured personnel.
B. report to the incident commander for instructions.
C. locate all injured personnel and begin treatment.
D. apprise medical control of the tactical situation.
Answer: B
Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1379
33. The reasons for rescue failure can be referred to by the mnemonic FAILURE. According to this mnemonic, the “U” stands for:
A. underutilizing personnel at the scene.
B. unprepared to effectively manage the scene.
C. underestimating the logistics of the incident.
D. undertrained to correctly utilize equipment.
Answer: C Question Type: General Knowledge
Page: 1379
34. Your unit has been dispatched to stand by at the scene of a structure fire. There are no injuries of which you are aware. Upon arriving at the scene, you should:
A. contact medical control and apprise him or her of the situation.
B. park your ambulance behind the incident commander’s vehicle.
C. set up a staging area where fire fighters can be treated if necessary.
D. ask the incident commander where the ambulance should be staged.
Answer: D
Question Type: Critical Thinking
Page: 1379
35. You and your partner are standing by at the scene of a residential fire when you hear the incident commander state “We have located a victim” over the radio. You should:
A. notify the hospital that you will be transporting a burn patient to their facility.
B. remain with the ambulance and wait for fire personnel to bring the victim to you.
C. immediately locate the incident commander and ask where the victim is located.
D. locate the victim and provide initial care while your partner stays with the ambulance.
Answer: B Question Type: Critical Thinking
Page: 1379