Chapter 3 The Marketing Research Process

Absolute Causality
The cause is necessary and sufficient to bring about the effect
Casual Interference
A conclusion that when one thing happens another specific thing will follow
Casual research
Allows causal inferences to be made-they identify cause and effect relationships.
Concomitant variation
One of the criteria for causality; occurs when two events covary, meaning they vary systematically
Conditional causality
The cause is necessary but not sufficient to bring about the effect
Contributory causality
The cause is neither necessary nor sufficient to bring about the effect; weakest form of causality
Data analysis
The application of computation, summarizing, and reasoning to understand the gathered information.
Decision making
the process of developing and deciding among alternative ways of resolving a problem or choosing from alternative opportunities
Deliverables
The term often used in consulting to describe research objective to the research client
Descriptive Research
Describes characteristics of objects, people, groups. organizations, or environments; tries to paint a picture of a given situation
Diagnostic Analysis
Seeks to detect reasons for market outcomes and focuses specifically on the beliefs, feelings, and reactions consumers have about and toward competing products
Empirical testing
Means that some prediction has been examined against reality using data
Experiment
A carefully controlled study in which the researcher manipulates a proposed cause and observes any corresponding change in the proposed effect
Experimental Variable
Represents the proposed cause that the researcher controls by manipulating its value
Exploratory research
Conducted to clarify ambiguous situations or discover ideas that may be potential business opportunities
Focus group
A small group discussion about some research topic led by a moderator who guides discussion among the participants
Hypothesis
A formal statement, derived from theory, explaining some specific outcome
Literature review
A directed search of published works, including periodicals and books that discusses theory and presents empirical results that are relevant to the topic at hand
Market opportunity
A situation that makes some potential competitive advantage possible
Market problem
A business situation that makes some significant negative consequence more likely
Manipulation
Means the researcher alters the level of the variable in specific increments
Mystery shoppers
Research personnel that pretend to be customers while observing and recording data describing their treatment by service employees
Nonspurious association
Means that any covariation between cause and effect is true and simply not the result of some other variable; one of three criteria for causality
Pilot study
A small scale research project that collects data from respondents similar to those to be used in a full study
Pretest
A small scale study in which the results are only preliminary and intended only to assist in design of a subsequent study
Research Design
The methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information for a given type of research
Research Objectives
The goals achieved by conducting research
Research Project
A single study addressing one or a small number of research objectives
Research Proposal
A written statement of the research design emphasizing what the research will accomplish
Sampling
Involves any procedure that draws conclusions based on measurements of a portion of a population
Survey
A research technique in which a sample is interviewed in some form or the behavior of respondents is observed and described in some way
Symptoms
Observable cues that serve as the signal of a problem
Temporal Sequence
Deals with the time order of events-the cause must be before effect; one of three criteria for causality
Theory
A formal, logical explanation of some events that includes predictions of how things relate to one another
Unobtrusive Methods
Methods in which research respondents do not have to be disturbed for data to be gathered
Research Program
Numerous research studies that come together to address multiple related research questions