chapter 3 marketing research

standard
prediction accuracy (best)
standard
realism (best)
standard
experimental control (worst)
standard
security (worst)
standard
cost (worst)
standard
speed (worst)
external validity
realism
internal validity
experimental control
controlled
prediction accuracy (mid)
controlled
realism (mid) external validity.
controlled
experimental control (mid) internal validity.
controlled
security (mid)
controlled
cost (mid)
controlled
speed (mid)
simulated
prediction accuracy (worst)
simulated
realism (worst)
simulated
experimental control (best)
simulated
security (best)
simulated
cost (best)
simulated
speed (best)
standard test market
provides a more natural environment, and offers the greatest degree of prediction accuracy.
standard test market
the company is entering a new territory and needs to build its experience base so that is can play for real, but wants to learn how to do so on a limited scale.
standard test market
the capital investment is significant and the firm needs a prolonged test market to accurately assess its capital needs or its technical ability to manufacture the product.
standard test market
it is important for the firm to test its ability to actually sell to the trade and get distribution for the product.
standard test market (traditional)
most expensive, take the most time, and most likely tip off competitors compared with other approaches.
controlled test market
primary disadvantage of ________ is acceptance or rejection of new product by the trade in the “real world.” when a new product fits in nicely with a company’s existing line, for which it already has distribution. when a new product is new or represents a radical departure for the manufacturer, the question of trade support is problematic.
controlled test market
less costly than standard test markets because the research supplier provides distribution and handles all aspects of display, pricing, and so on.
controlled test market
more expensive than simulated test markets, but less costly than standard test markets.
simulated test market
more suited for evaluating product extensions than for examining the likely success of radically different new products.
simulated test market
primary disadvantage________ do not provide any information about the firm’s ability to secure trade support for the product or about what competitive reaction is likely to be.
simulated test market
faster than full scale tests and are particularly good for spotting weak products.
simulated test market
least expensive test market.
simulated test market
good for assessing trial and repeat purchasing behavior.
simulated test market
protection they provide from competitors.
descriptive research
longitudinal and cross sectional.
test market
are test markets reliable? if not, what would make them more reliable? what makes a good test market?
test market
very common form of causal research.
simulated test market
consumers do not purchase the product or service. they’re asked to rate products or concepts.
simulated test market
BASES from nielsen is an industry leader.
simulated test market
a study in which consumer rating and other information are fed into a computer model that then makes projections about the likely level of sales for the product in the market.
controlled test market
controls direct to consumer promotions and the targeting of specific advertising to subsets of the panel households.
controlled test market
maintains its own warehouse and distribution system in each city, and its employees routinely visit stores weekly to see that distribution, shelf location, and point of sale promotions are executed as planned.
controlled test market
behaviorscan from symponyIRI Group is a leading supplier.
controlled test market
forced distribution test market.
controlled test market
an entire test program conducted by an outside service in a market in which it can guarantee distribution.
spillover
advertising and other promotion or a significant percentage of consumers in the test market traveling outside the test market to shop.
standard market test
taco bell tests marketing grilled stuffed burrito in fresno, cali. avoid spillover
standard market test
a test market in which the company sells the product through its normal distribution channels.
market testing
cost, time, control
market testing
general motors proposed change in distribution system. 1200 cards at orlando for delivery to dealerships. approach was to whittle down inventory for dealers.
market testing
effectiveness of new displays, the responsiveness of sales to shelf space changes, the impact of changes in retail prices on market shares, the effect of different commercials on sales of products, and the differential effects of price and advertising on demand.
market testing
also used to examine the effectiveness of almost every element of the marketing mix.
marketing testing
mcdonalds used_________to determine that a market existed for its own highers end coffee drinks before beginning large scale distribution.
market testing
often used to predict sales or profit outcomes of one or more proposed marketing actions.
market testing
involves the use of a controlled experiment done in a limited but carefully selected section of the marketplace.
causal research
market testing.
field experiment
store conditions vary.
field experiment
control of variables other than x or y is challenging.
field experiment
like a retail store.
field experiment
“trip chaining” called residents and asked them questions on routes of clustered and nonclustered homes.
field experiment
research study in a realistic (fluid) situation in which one or more independent variables are manipulated by the experimenter under as carefully controlled conditions as the situation will permit.
laboratory experiment
need to know whether or not changes in the experimental variable (degree of clustering) actually produced the observed changes in the outcome variable (consumer preference).
laboratory experiment
control of variables other than x or y is maximized.
laboratory experiment
sterile.
laboratory experiment
like a chemistry lab.
laboratory experiment
“trip chaining” consumers driving to clustered retailers vs unclustered. research developed maps and directions for both trip chains. not real consumers living in areas.
causal research
laboratory and field experiments.
laboratory experiment
research investigation in which investigators create a situation with exact conditions in order to control some variables and manipulate others.
experiment
scientific investigation in which an investigator manipulates and controls one or more independent variables and observes the degree to which the dependent variables change.
experimental subjects
sometimes we conduct experiments in fake or sterile environments so that we can carefully control exactly what research participates.
causal research
the basic part of an experiment is to change the levels of one or more x variables and examine the resulting impact on y variable.
causal research
experiments are often used to isolate relationships between independent (x) and dependent (y) variables.
causal research
condition x causes event y
causal research
used to establish cause and effect relationships between variables.
descriptive research
we might have learned that there was a negative correlation between consumer ratings of likelihood of tipping over and attitude toward the product, but not a lot more.
sample survey disadvantage
research is expensive and takes lots of time, energy, and money to collect and analyze data. you’ll have to hire people adding to cost of the project.
sample survey
target very specific populations. probability, the results can be projected to the overall population.
panel disadvantage
low cooperation rates.
panel disadvantage
non representative and/or nonrandom. even if panel matches demographic, can’t be projected because not randomly chosen.
cross sectional
asked to remember and report their past behaviors.
panel data
research problem requires collection of things like purchasing behavior or watching and listening to media outlets.
discontinuous panel
consumer categories like expectant mothers, video gamers, emergency service workers, and small business owners. ex: update profiles on topics like vehicle ownership, future purchase intent, and frequency at home maintenance. also asks attitudes towards both existing and new products and services.
continuous panel
tracking of consumer product purchases. ex: tesla club card.
discontinuous panel
a fixed sample of respondents who are measured repeatedly over time, with respect to different variables.
continuous panel
a fixed sample respondents who are measured repeatedly over time with respect to the same variables.
discontinuous panel
omnibus panels.
continuous panel
true panels.
longitudinal study
continuous and discontinuous panels.
longitudinal study
investigation involving a fixed sample of elements that is measured repeatedly through time.
longitudinal study
fixed sample.
sample survey
cross sectional study in which the sample is selected to be representative of the target population and in which the emphasis is on the generation of summary statistics such as averages and percentages.
cross sectional study
investigation involving a sample of elements selected from the population of interest that are measured at a single point in time.
cross sectional study
most common descriptive studies.
dummy table
a table (or figure) with no entries used to show the results of the analysis will be presented.
descriptive research
clear specification of the who, what, when, where, why, and how of the research.
exploratory research
flexible in nature.
descriptive research
as satisfaction increases, the intention to switch to another service provider decreases.
descriptive research
awareness levels for our product are higher for men than for women in the target market.
descriptive research
determine relationships between variables.
descriptive research
make specific predictions. predict levels of sales so that we could plan for hiring and firing.
descriptive research
determine the proportion of people who behave in a certain way. when shopper makes a purchase at retailer, the purchase behavior is recorded as part of scanner data.
descriptive research
to describe the characteristics of certain group. managers wants profile of people that go to BBQ chain. learned that half of customers were women.
descriptive research
very common in business and other aspects of life. most marketing research you’ve heard about.
ethnography
the detailed observation of consumers during their ordinary daily lives using direct observations, interviews, and video and audio recordings.
ethnography
increasingly popular form of case analysis is _______. based on real behavior, not useful for final answers.
benchmarking
standard research tool.
benchmarking
reading about other organizations, visiting or calling them, and taking apart competing products to see how they are made.
benchmarking
using organizations that excel at some function as sources of ideas improvement.
benchmarking
frequently used example of case analysis.
case analysis
examine existing records, observe the phenomenon as it occurs, conduct unstructured interviews, or use any one of a variety of other approaches.
case analysis
intensive study of selected examples of the phenomenon of interest.
focus group
“norm.”
focus group
the primary function is often to validate the sellers’ own beliefs about their product.
darkside focus group
results interpreted.
darkside focus group
better for generating ideas and insights for systematically examining them. not designed to provide answers.
moderator
you must understand the background of the problem and what the client needs to learn from the research process.
moderator’s guidebook
an ordered list of the general (and specific) issues to be addressed during a focus group; the issues normally should move from general to specific. (funnel approach)
moderator
the______in the focus group plays the single most important and most difficult role in the process.
focus group
less expensive to conduct the depth interviews.
focus group
aeropastle became one of the hottest performing clothing chains for teens in part by conducting_______with high school students.
snowballing effect
a comment by one individual can trigger a chain of responses from others.
focus group
ideas drop out of the blue. (snowballing effect)
focus group
responses are more often spontaneous and less conventional.
group interaction
key differences between focus group interviews and depth interviews.
moderator
the individual who meets with focus group participants and guides the session.
focus group
an interview conducted among a small number of individuals simultaneously; the interview relies more on group discussion than on directed questions to generate data.
focus group
most overused and misused techniques.
focus group
are among the most often used techniques in marketing research.
depth interviews
a children’s book publisher gained valuable information about a sales decline by talking with librarians and school teachers who indicated that more and more people were using library facilitates and presumably buying fewer books for children.
depth interviews
interviews with people knowledgeable about the general subject being investigated.
exploratory research
literature search, depth interviews, focus groups, case analysis.
literature search
MBS used published industry sources to develop profiles of its competitors. one day they noticed one company hired nine furniture people in a 10 day period.
literature search
a search of popular press (newspapers, magazines, and so fourth) trade literature, academic literature, or published statistics from research firms or governmental agencies for data or insight into the problem at hand.
literature search
one of the quickest and least costly ways to discover hypothesis.
exploratory research
these people are almost never randomly selected.
exploratory research
usually involves only a relatively small group of people.
quantitative research
descriptive and/or causal research.
hypothesis
is a statement that describes how two or more variables are related.
exploratory research
is conducted to provide a better understanding not to come up with final answers or decisions.
exploratory research
sales for a particular line of vehicles dropped during the last quarter, what caused the decrease in revenue.
exploratory and descriptive
almost all marketing research project include. never all 3 designs.
causal
a trial is held to determine whether the evidence is sufficient to convict a suspect of the crime.
descriptive
conducting interviews with witnesses and suspects.
exploratory
search for clues that can help establish what has happened.
causal research
research design in which the major emphasis is on determining cause and effect relationships.
descriptive research
concerned with describing a population with respect to important variables.
descriptive research
research design in which the major emphasis is on determining the frequency with which something occurs or the extent to which two variables covary.
exploratory research
research design in which the major emphasis is on gaining ideas and insights.
research design
it is defined as the specific methods and procedures you use to acquire the information you need.
research design
is the framework or plan for a study as a guide in collecting and analyzing data.