Chapter 3: Data and Knowledge Management

attribute
Each characteristic or quality describing a particular entity.
best practices
The most effective and efficient ways to do things.
bit
A binary digit; that is, a 0 or a 1.
byte
A group of eight bits that represents a single character.
clickstream data
Data collected about user behavior and browsing patterns by monitoring users’ activities when they visit a Web site.
data dictionary
Collection of definitions of data elements; data characteristics that use the data elements; and the individuals, business functions, applications, and reports that use this data element.
data governance
An approach to managing information across an entire organization.
data mart
A low-cost, scaled-down version of a data warehouse that is designed for the end-user needs in a strategic business unit (SBU) or a department.
data model
Definition of the way data in a DBMS are conceptually structured.
data warehouse
A repository of historical data that are organized by subject to support decision makers in the organization.
database
A group of logically related files that stores data and the associations among them.
database management system (DBMS)
The software program (or group of programs) that provides access to a database.
entity
A person, place, thing, or event about which information is maintained in a record.
entity classes
Groupings of entities of a given type.
entity-relationship (ER) diagram
Document that shows data entities and attributes and relationships among them.
entity-relationship (ER) modeling
The process of designing a database by organizing data entities to be used and identifying the relationships among them.
explicit knowledge
The more objective, rational, and technical types of knowledge.
field
A grouping of logically related characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number.
file
A grouping of logically related records.
identifiers
Attributes that are unique to an entity instance.
instance
A particular entity within an entity class.
intellectual capital (or intellectual assets)
Other terms for knowledge.
knowledge management (KM)
A process that helps organizations identify, select, organize, disseminate, transfer, and apply information and expertise that are part of the organization’s memory and that typically reside within the organization in an unstructured manner.
knowledge management systems (KMSs)
Information technologies used to systematize, enhance, and expedite intra- and inter-firm knowledge management.
master data
A set of core data, such as customer, product, employee, vendor, geographic location, and so on, that spans an enterprise’s information systems.
master data management
A process that provides companies with the ability to store, maintain, exchange, and synchronize a consistent, accurate, and timely “single version of the truth” for the company’s core master data.
multidimensional structure
Storage of data in more than two dimensions; a common representations is the “data cube”.
normalization
A method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form for minimum redundancy, maximum data integrity, and best processing performance.
online transaction processing (OLTP)
Processing of business transactions online as soon as they occur.
primary key
The identifier field or attribute that uniquely identifies a record.
query by example (QBE)
Database language that enables the user to fill out a grid (form) to construct a sample or description of the data wanted.
record
A grouping of logically related fields.
relational database model
Data model based on the simple concept of tables in order to capitalize on characteristics of rows and columns of data.
secondary key
An identifier field or attribute that has some identifying information but typically does not identify the file with complete accuracy.
structured query language (SQL)
Popular relational database language that enables users to perform complicated searches with relatively simple instructions.
table
A grouping of logically related records.
tacit knowledge
The cumulative store of subjective or experiential learning, which is highly personal and hard to formalize.