Chapter 29

The waste-handling strategy that utilizes a broad range of reduction techniques and disposal options is:
integrated waste management
Disposal of biodegradable chemical waste by dispersal is called:
land application
Disposal of vegetable and animal waste by natural decomposition is called:
composting
The treatment of sewage (including waste water and human waste) involves particular challenges in a concentrated, industrialized society like the U.S. and Canada. Which of the following, according to the textbook, complicates safe treatment and recycling of this waste:
toxic substances that may be present in the waste water
Of the following disposal options, which one would be most appropriate (or least objectionable) for hazardous liquid chemicals?
deep well disposal
Reducing waste volumes through the combination of more sustainable use of materials and resource consideration is called:
materials management
Which of the following, among other things, first established the fund for cleaning up the worst abandoned hazardous waste sites (the fund is known as “Superfund”):
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980
The study of the relationships among industrial systems and their links to natural systems is called:
industrial ecology
Leachate is a major environmental hazard associated with solid waste disposal sites. How is leachate most commonly produced?
chemical reaction between wastes and water percolating through the dump
Why is e-waste considered to be a problem?
all of these
An option for waste management that has the greatest negative impact on air quality is:
incineration
Disposing of biodegradable toxic waste by land application is a cheap and efficient method because:
these materials are degraded by the microorganisms in the soil
Which of the following is the most significant effect of improper disposal of hazardous waste:
pollution of groundwater
Why has Europe been more successful in recycling than the U.S.?
I. landfill fees in Europe are much higher than in the U.S.
II. the manufacturers are responsible for the disposal cost of packaging and industrial goods they produce
III. recycling is required by law in almost all European countries
I and II
Deep-well injection of hazardous chemical waste may be a suitable method of disposal where:
a deep, porous rock formation is isolated from surface and near-surface systems
The four main characteristics of hazardous waste that make it hazardous, according to the Resource Conservation & Recovery Act of 1979 include all of the following except:
infectiousness
“Toxic” substances can have any of the following characteristics except:
they can be infectious
Potential dangers of deep-well injection of hazardous waste include all of the following except:
land subsidence
Love Canal, near Niagara Falls, New York, illustrates which of the following principles or problems?
disposal of hazardous chemical waste in an uncontrolled site
Microbial breakdown refers to:
the use of living organisms to clean up hazardous substances in the environment
The Resource Conservation & Recovery Act of 1979:
defined hazardous waste by four characteristics
In a secure landfill for hazardous waste, an impermeable clay cap is often used to:
prevent infiltration of surface water into the waste
The major component of solid waste in United States is:
paper
“Integrated waste management” refers to:
reuse, recycling, and composting
The most abundant components of solid waste are, in order from most abundant to least:
paper products, food waste, textiles
Application of waste material to the soil surface is referred to as “land application”. Land application is a suitable means for disposal of:
biodegradable waste
Which of the following approaches would be the most appropriate alternative for disposal of organic waste from residential gardens and kitchens?
composting
Of the following, which is the best order for methods to control the amount of solid waste (from most effective to least effective)?
reduction, reuse, recycling, incineration, landfills
Which of the following would be the best setting for deep-well injection of hazardous wastes?
porous sandstone, overlain by clay
Adverse effects of deep-well injection of hazardous chemical wastes include:
increased earthquake activity
All of the following are major classes of hazardous waste except:
sewage waste
Permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste is considered safest in:
impermeable bedrock
Which of the following rock types is the best suited for subsurface storage of high-level radioactive waste?
welded tuff
Incineration of combustible material leaves:
noncombustible materials and ash
A secure landfill for hazardous chemical waste should include which of the following safety features:
electronic systems to detect leaks