Chapter 21

Question Answer
Organs or Respiratory System NoseNasal cavityPharynxLarynxTracheaBronchial treeLungs
Upper respiratory tract Passageway from nasal to larynx
Lower respiratory tract Passageway from trachea to alveoli
Alveoli(lower respiratory) Tiny air sac; gases are exchanged
Lungs(lower respiratory) Spongy organs in thoracic cavity
Conducting zone Air travels throughout body
Conducting zone Air filtered, warmed, moistened
Conducting zone From nose to nasal cavity to bronchioles
Respiratory zone Gas exchange occur
Respiratory zone Structures that contain alveoli
Major function of Respiratory system Provide cells w/ oxygen & remove waste product carbon dioxide
Four Respiratory processes Pulmonary ventilationPulmonary gas exchangeGas transportTissue gas exchange
Pulmonary ventilation Air movement in/out lungs
Pulmonary gas exchange Movement of gases btwn lungs & blood
Gas transport Movement of gases through blood
Tissue gas exchange Movement of gases btwn blood & tissues
Major function of Respiratory system Maintain homeostasis & blood pressure
Major function of respiratory system Mechanism for speech and sound
Major function of Respiratory system Neurons for sense of smell
Major function of Respiratory system Maintain acid-base balance in extracellular fluid
Major function of Respiratory system Synthesizes enzyme in production of angiotesin-ll
Major function of Respiratory system Pressure changes assist w/ flow of venous blood
Major function of Respiratory system
Functions of nose and naval cavity Entryway into respiratory system
Functions of nose and naval cavity Inhaled air is warmed humidified
Function of nose and naval cavity Debris filtered/antibacterial substance secreted
Function of nose and naval cavity Olfactory receptors housed
Function of nose and naval cavity Enhances resonance of voice
Meatuses create turbulence that rids dust/debris
Sinuses Hollow cavities w/n frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, && maxillary bones
Sinuses Warm/humidify airEnhance voice Reduce weight of skull
Histology of nasal cavity Vestibule lined w/ stratified squamous epith.; resist mechanical stress
Histology of nasal cavity Epith. Changes to two types of mucous membrane: olfactory & respiratory
Histology of nasal cavity Olfactory mucosa- houses receptors for smell
Histology of nasal cavity Lined w/ pseudostratified cilated columnar epith.; specialized for air filtration
Pharynx(throat)has 3 anatomic divisions NasopharynxOropharynxLaryngopharynx
Nasopharynx Psuedostratified columnar epith. For warming,humidifying, && filtering
Oropharynx Nonkeratinized stratifies squamous epth.;protective against stress
Laryngopharynx Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epth.;common passageway for air/food
Larynx(voice box) Keeps food/liquid out of respiratory tract; houses vocal cords
Larynx Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epith.propel mucous & debris up/out
Larynx Stratified squamous nonkeratinized epith. Protects from stress
Trachea(wind pipe) Hyaline cartilage rings cover anteeior/lateral surfaces
Trachea Posterior surface allows esophagus to expand during swallowing
Carina(last trachea ring) Forms hooks that surround first branches of bronchial tree
Mucosa of trachea Allows trachea to warm/moisten/filter air
Bronchial tree Inhaled air reaches Carina-then enters left/right primary bronchus
Bronchial tree Once inside lungs-bronchus branches into bronchial tree
Bronchial tree Smaller tubes that end in alveoli
Primary Bronchi Divide intp left/right branches st Carina
Secondary bronchi once inside each lung Three on right/two on left
Tertiary bronchi branch 10 smaller bronchi per lung; continue to branch into smaller branches
Bronchioles Smallest airway
Terminal Bronchioles Branch into two or more smaller respiratory bronchiole
Respiratory bronchiole Branches into two or more alveolar ducts
Two phases of pulmonary ventilation Inspiration or inhalationExpiration or Exhalation
Inspiration Bring air into lungs
Expiration Moves air out of lungs
Boyle's law Rship btwn pressure & volume
Pulmonary ventilation rship to Boyle's law Volume changes in thoracic cavity & lungs that lead to a pressure gradient

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