chapter 2 The Evolution of Management Thinking

An innovation mindset that strives to meet customers’ immediate needs quickly and inexpensively is referred to as:
a. kaizen.
b. just-in-time control
c .total quality management.
d. jugaad.(D)
e. XY Theory.
(E)A(n) ____ perspective provides a broader way of thinking, a way of searching for patterns, and determining whether they recur across time periods.
a. analytical
b. futuristic
c. systematic
d. methodical
e. historical
____ forces refer to those aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people.(A)
a. Social
b. Political
c. Economic
d. Technological
e. Legal
Which of these forces comprises unwritten common rules and perceptions about relationships?(C)
a. Economic forces
b. Political forces
c. Social forces
d. Legal forces
e. Personal forces
(C)Jessica is a recent college graduate who is seeking a job that includes telecommuting shared jobs, flextime and organization-sponsored sabbaticals. based on this information, Jessica most likely belongs to which demographic group?
a. Baby Boomer
b. Generation X
c. Generation Y
d. Generation Z
e. Tweener
(C)Which of these forces pertain to the availability production, and distribution of resources in a society?
a. Social
b. Political
c. Economic
d. Technological
e. Legal
Strong anti-American sentiments in many parts of the world exemplify the effect of:(B)
a. economic forces.
b. political forces.
c. demographic forces
d. technological forces.
e. human relations forces.
____ is the most current management perspective. (D)
a. Total quality management
b. Contingency views
c. Systems theory
d. Open (colla&orative) innovation
e. Classical perspective
The nineteenth and early twentieth centuries saw the development of which management perspective?c. The classical perspective
a. The human relations movement
b. The behavioral sciences approach
d. The quantitative management approach
e. The TQM approach
Which of these perspectives emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of management and sought to make organizations efficient operating machines?(C)
a. The Humanistic Perspective
b. The Behavioral Sciences Approach
c. The Classical Perspective
d. The TQM approach
e. The quantitative Management Approach
Which of these is a subfield of the classical management perspective that emphasized scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity?(E)
a. The human relations movement
b. The Behavioral sciences approach
c. The TQM approach
d. The quantitative management approach
e. The scientific management movement
Frank Gilbreth felt that efficiency equated with: a. one best way to do work.
b. leadership flows from the top down.
c. procedures and policies
d. scientific management.
e. bureaucracy
Time and motion studies that resulted in drastic reduction in the time patients spent on the operating table were pioneered by ____.e. Frank Gilbreth
a. Edward Deming
b. Henry Gantt
c. Max Weber
d. Mary Parker Follett
Who is considered the “first lady of management?” b. Lillian Gilbreth
a. Mary Parker Follett
c. Carly Fiorona
d. Maxine Weber
e. Anne Adams
The three subfields of the classical perspective include: c. administrative management, bureaucratic organization, and scientific management.
a. quantitative management, behavioral science, and administrative management.
b. bureaucratic organization, quantitative management, and the human relations movement.
d. scientific management, quantitative management, and administrative management.
e. none of these.
____ is considered the “father of scientific management.” e. Frederick W. Taylor
a. Frank B. Gilbreth
b. Elton Mayo
c. Henry Gantt
d. Douglas McGregor
Which of the following is a bar graph that measures planned and completed work along each stage of production by time elapsed? b. Gantt chart
a. Time and work chart
c. Time and Motion chart
d. Production and Delivery chart
e. Gilbreth chart
Frederick Taylor’s contributions were in the field of: a. scientific management.
b. human resource management.
c. human relations.
d. quantitative management.
e. total quality management.
which of the following is not a criticism of scientific management? c. It does not appreciate the careful study of tasks and jobs
a. It does not appreciate of work.
b. It does not appreciate the higher needs of workers.
d. It does not acknowledge variance among individuals
e. It tends to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their idea suggestions.
Standardization of work and wage incentives are characteristics of: b. scientific management
a. bureaucratic organizations.
c. quantitative management.
d. administrative management.
e. behavioral science.
Which of these is a major criticism of scientific management? a. It ignored the social context of work.
b. It ignored the impact of compensation on performance.
c. It overemphasized individual differences.
d.It overemphasized the intelligence of workers.
e. It emphasized the social context of work.
The assembly line is most consistent with which of the following general principles of management? b. Division of work
a. Unity of command
c. Authority
d. Scalar chain
e. Quality management
The bureaucratic organizations approach is a subfield within the ____. a. classical perspective
b. systems theory
c. scientific management
d. learning organization
e. management science view
According to Weber’s ideas on bureaucracy organizations should be based on which of these? c. rational authority
a. Personal loyalty
b. Personal reference
d. Family ties.
e. Charismatic authority
Whereas scientific management focused on ___, administrative principles approach focused on the ____. a. individual productivity; total organization
b. organization productivity; individual effort
c. efficient procedures; management by principle
d. employee ability; employee loyalty
e. employee competence; work flow through the organization
Archies’ Antiques, Inc. is characterized by separation of management from ownership and by clearly defined lines of authority and responsibility. These characteristics are consistent with the principles of:
a. scientific management.
b. bureaucratic organizations.(B)
c. administrative management theory
d. human resource management.
e. all of these.
All of the following are characteristics of Weberian bureaucracy except: e. management is the same as the ownership of the organization.(V)c. all personnel are selected and promoted based on technical qualifications.
(V)d. administrative acts and decisions are recorded in writing.
(V)a. labor is divided with clear definitions of authority and responsibility that are legitimized as official duties.
(V)b. positions are organized in a hierarchy of authority, with each position under the authority of a higher one.
Max Weber felt selection of employees should be based on ____.(B)
a. education
b. competence
c. connections
d. political skills
e. efficient systems
Matrix Dress Designs operates using the concept of empowerment, where employees act independently and with management facilitating rather than controlling workers. These qualities represent which management approach?(D)
a. Administrative principles approach
b. bureaucratic approach
c. Scientific management approach
d. Humanistic approach
e. Behavioral sciences approach
Positions organized in a hierarchy of authority is an important characteristic of: b. bureaucratic organizations.
a. scientific management.
c. quantitative management.
d. the human relations movement.
e. total quality management.
UPS is successful in the small package delivery market. One important reason for this success is the concept of: (D)
a. globalization.
b. employee flexibility.
c. loose standards.
d. bureaucracy.
e. non-bureaucratic organizational system.
Mary Parker Follett contributed to which field? (V)a. Humanistic approach.(X)b. Scientific management approach(X)c. Total quality
management approach
(X)d. quantitative approach to management
(X)e. Systems approach to management
The principle that similar activities in an organization should be grouped together under one manager is the essence of the (C)
classical perspective known as: a. unity of command.
b. division of work.
c. unity of direction.
d. scalar chain.
e. quality management.
The use of specialization to produce more and better work with the same level of effort is consistent with the administrative management principle of: d. division of work.
a. unity of command.
b. unity of direction.
c. scalar chain.
e. none of these
Genex Dynamics is a Ballistics company that uses the unity of command, scalar chain, and division of work principles. These are part of which management philosophy?(A)
a. Administrative principles approach
b. Bureaucratic approach
c. Scientific management approach
d. Humanistic approach
e. Behavioral sciences approach
The ____ refers to a chain of authority extending from top to the bottom of the organization and including every employee. d. scalar chain
a. unity of command
b. division of labor
c. unity of direction
e. none of these
Mary Parker Follett thought of leadership as ____ rather than techniques. (C)
a. systems
b. top managers
c. people
d. efficiencies
e. floor managers
A key finding in the Hawthorne studies was which of these?e.Human relations increased productivity.
a. Stronger lighting increased productivity.
b. More money resulted in increased productivity.
c. Productivity declined in all experiments.
d. Higher temperatures reduced productivity.
Chester Bernard felt that ____ could help a poorly managed organization. d. informal relations.
a. bureaucracy
b. line manager
c. efficiencies
e. top/down flow of information
The findings provided by the Hawthorne Studies provided the impetus for the ____,despite flawed methodology or inaccurate conclusions. (B)
a. classical perspective
b. humanistic perspective
c. scientific management
b. bureaucratic organizations
e. contingency perspective
A social group within an organization is part of the: b. informal organization.
a. formal organizational structure.
c. scalar chain.
d. reorganization process.
e. top management level.
A significant contribution of Chester Barnard was the concept of: b. the informal organization.
a. bureaucracy.
c. total quality management.
d. scientific management.
e. traditional theory of authority.
The human resources perspective of management links motivation theories with ____.(B)
a. top management
b. employee tasks
c. floor managers
d. efficiencies
e. profit maximization
A “dairy farm” view of management, i.e., contented cows give more milk cows satisfied workers will give more work was espoused by: (A)
a. human relations management.
b. human resource perspective.
c. behavioral science approach
d. management science perspective.
e. none of
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs started with which of these needs? (D)
a. Esteem
b. Love
c. Safety
d. Physiological
e. Belongings
(B) Tommy believes his employees are responsible, creative and able to work with minimal direction. He is a
a. theory X manager.
b. theory Y manager.
c. theory Z manager.
d. theory A manager.
e. contingency theory manager.
Theory X and Theory Y was developed by ____. a. Douglas McGregor
b. Henry Gantt
c. Max Weber
d. Mary Parker Follett
e. Frank Gilbreth
Beth Brant, production supervisor at Trustworthy Tools Mfg., Inc. believes that her employees dislike work avoid responsibility, and therefore they need to be controlled and directed. Beth is a:(A)
a. theory X manager
b. theory Y manager.
c. realistic manager.
d. theory Z manager.
e. theory J manager.
According to Douglas McGregor, the classical perspective on management is consistent with which of the following?(A)
a. theory X manager
b. theory Y manager.
c. theory Z manager.
d. theory A manager.
e. None of these
The behavioral sciences approach is based on which of the following disciplines?(E)
a. Anthropology
b.Economics
c. Sociology
d. Psychology
e. All of these
Organizational development is one specific set of management techniques based in the ____ approach.(C)
a. management science
b. systems theory
c. behavioral sciences d. scientific management.
e. quantitative
The Forestville Freeze is regionally known for its employee training programs. Managers at the Freeze conduct research to determine the best candidate interviewing techniques. This involves the use of which management approach?(C)
a. Administrative principles approach
b. bureaucratic approach
c. behavioral sciences approach
d. Humanistic approach
e. Scientific management approach
The management science perspective emerged after World War II to treat problems associated with:(A)
a. modern global warfare.
b. environmental issues.
c. employee involvement
d. Germany
d. improving manufacturing.
Which of these refers to the management thinking and practice that emphasizes satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity?(E)
a. Scientific management perspective
b. Human resource perspective
c. Management science perspective
d. Behavioral sciences approach
e. Human relations movement
Within his role as a financial accountant Roger uses the capital asset pricing model and other mathematical tools to help clients keep track of their finances. Which perspective or approach does Roger ?(A)
a. Quantitative perspective
b. Qualitative perspective
c. Humanistic approach
d. Behavioral science approach
e. Scientific management approach
The ____ emphasized the importance of understanding human behaviors, needs, and attitudes in the workplace as well as social interactions and group processes.(A)
a. humanistic perspective
b. classical perspective
c. scientific management
d. bureaucratic organizations
e. contingency perspective
Most early interpretations of the Hawthorne studies argued that the factor that best explained increased output was ____.
a. money
b. days off
c. human relation(C)
d. lighting
e. free food
The management science perspective applies all of the following to managerial problems EXCEPT:(B)
a. statistics.
b. qualitiative techniques
c. mathematics
d. quantitative techniques
e. all of thee are correct
Operations research grew out of World War II groups and is based on ____.(D)
a. group dynamics
b. employees in crisis
c. production in turbulent times
d. mathematical equations
e. a humanistic approach
Which of the following refers to financial managers and others who base their decisions on complex quantitative analysis, under assumption that using advanced mathematics and technology can accurately predict how the market works?
a. Stems
b. Yuppies
c. QuaIs
d. Quants(D)
e. Fins
The most recent subfield of the quantitative perspective is _____, which is reflected in management information systems designed to provide relevant information to managers in a timely and cost-efficient manner.c. information technology
a. operations research
b. operations management
d. systems thing
e. infrastructure development
The teamwork philosophy is based in part on the assumption that five people working together can produce more than five people working individually. This philosophy is consistent with the concept of ____.(C)
a. transformation
b. entropy
c. synergy
d. feedback
e. quality
From the 1950s until today, which management perspective has remained the most prevalent?(E)
a. systems
b. Qualitative
c. Scientific management
d. Quantitative
e. Humanistic
Georgia, an airline CEO, often looks for patterns of movement within the airline industry, focusing on the qualities of rhythm, flow, direction shape, and networks of relationships.This type of activity referred to as ____
thinking,allows Georgia to see the structures that underlie complex situations within the industry and company.a. systems(A)
b. qualitative
c. quantitative
d. conceptual
e. contingen
10 +10 =25 reflects which of these?(B)
a. Entropy
b. Synergy
c. Open system
d. Closed system
e. Weberian math
It is often difficult to make decisions about subsystems because they are:(A)
a. interdependent
b. independent
c. managed differently
d. filled with employees
e. organizationally based
After decades of being a manager Jeffrey has learned that an organizational structure that is effective for one company is likely to be ineffective for a different company. This knowledge reflects which current management perspective?
a. Systems thinking
b. Contingency view(B)
c. Total quality management
d. Benchmarking
e. Scientific management
___ specifies a goal of no more than 3.4 defects per million parts. c. Six Sigma
a. Benchmarking
b. Total quality management

d. Balanced scorecard
e. Jugaad

In ____, every situation is viewed as unique. c. a case view
a. a universalist view
b. a contingency view
d. A scientific management
e. none of these
In order to determine how to deal with a problem employee Sharon evaluated the employee, the problem, and the context in which the problem occurred. She is applying which of the following perspectives?
a. Participative view
b. Universalist view
c. Autonomy view
d. Contingency view
e. Humanist view
A consultant who recommends the effectiveness of sensitivity training to every organization he serves is violating the basics of which of the following perspectives?c. Contingency perspective
a. Efficiency perspective
b. Universalist perspective

d. Scientific management perspective
e. Quantitative perspective

Which of the following is often considered the “father of the quality movement?”(D)
a. Weber
b. Gilbreth
c. Follett
d. Deming
e. Gehrke
___ focuses on managing the whole organization to deliver quality to customers. d. Total quality management
a. Bureaucracy
b. Theory Z
c. Management-by-objective
e. Organization-customer relationship
Elements of TQM include: c. Benchmarking.
a. employee detachment.
b. focus on profits.
d. accidental improvement.
e. all of these.
____ is a process whereby companies find out how others do something better than they do and then try to imitate or improve on it.
a. TQM
b. Continuous improvement
c. Benchmarking(C)
d. Empowerment
e. MBO
The implementation of small incremental improvements in all areas of the organization on an ongoing basis is referred to as:(E)
a. benchmarking
b. empowerment
c. systems theory
d. contingency perspective
e.continuous improvement
Which of the following refers to managing the sequence of suppliers and purchasers covering all stages of processing from obtaining raw materials to distributing finished goods to consumers?
a. E-commerce
b. E-business
c. Supply chain management(C)
d. knowledge management
e. Customer relationship management
Which of the following uses the latest information technology to keep in close touch with customers and to collect and manage large amounts of customer data?
a. Supply Chain Management
b. Learning Organizations
c. Scientific Management
d. Customer Relationship Management(D)
e. The Humanistic Approach
Which of the following is identified as a recent trend that has staying power?d. Relationship management
a. Corporate takeover’s
b. Hedging
c. Insourcing
e. Task management
According to the Manager’s Shoptalk of chapter 2,which of the following is not in the top five contemporary management tools?a. Collaborative innovation
b. Mission and vision statements
c. Benchmarking
d. Strategic planning
e. Customer relationship management
According to the Manager’s Shoptalk of chapter 2 Latin American executives are more less to use tools such as:c. downsizing.
a. customer segmentation and business process reengineering.
b. consumer ethnography and corporate blogs.
d. activity-based management and virtual teams.
e. scenario planning and lean operations.
Scenario – Britney Marr
The opportunity to gain a foothold in the snack cracker industry had just been found. Britney Marr, an account executive manager for Baked wheat Industries had developed an interest in wheat crackers two months ago when one of her newly hired account execs, Amy Bender, had convinced her about the high margins and promising future associated with that market. Marr had always believed that if you do your homework in hiring the best people then it only makes sense to listen to their recommendations and implement their suggestions.
Marr had given her approval to Bender to explore opportunities to move into this promising new market. This morning, Bender had reported that the Jackson Corporation had severed its contract with Feel Good Crackers Incorporated. Apparently, the Feel Good salesman had shared sensitive information about Jackson at a cocktail party. Bender had already established a good relationship this as an Feel Good buyers and so recognized this as an opportunity to expand her market into wheat crackers.
Marr’s behavior provides an example of

a. the use of scale
b.division of organization.
c. the principle of inversion.
d. unity of direction.(D)
e. all of these

Marr had given her approval to Bender to explore opportunities to move into this promising new market. This morning, Bender had reported that the Jackson Corporation had severed its contract with Feel Good Crackers Incorporated. Apparently, the Feel Good salesman had shared sensitive information about Jackson at a cocktail party. Bender had already established a good relationship with Feel Good buyers and so recognized this as an opportunity to expand her market into wheat crackers.
Marr’s management style reflects a belief in

a. theory Y. (A)
b. developing her employees through control.
c. grieving theory. d. all of these.
e. none of these.

From a System’s theory perspective:(B)
a. Marr should inc
b. Marr should listen to and reward her people well to increase synergy.
c. the Jackson account was lost because Feel Good was too closed to its environ
d. all of these.
e. none of these.
Contingency theory recommends:e. none of these.
a. Marr should m Bender.
b.the goal of every manager should be high return on investment, so Marr should
c. Bender should focus on her expertise, recognizing the potential risk of failure
d. all of these.
A(n) _____ perspective provides a broader way of thinking, a way of searching for patterns and determining whether they recur across time periods.
historical
____ refer to the aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people.
social forces
____ refer to the influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations.
Political force
____ pertain to the availability production, and distribution of resources in a society.
Economic Force
A management perspective that emerged during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of management and sought to make organizations efficient operating machines is called ____.
classical perspective
____ is considered the “father of scientific management.”
Frederick W. Taylor
Weber’s vision of organizations that would be managed on an impersonal rational basis is called a(n) ____.
burcaucracy
A subfield of the classical management perspective that focused on the total organization rather than the individual worker, delineating the management functions of planning organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling is called ____.
administrative principles
According to Fayol, similar activities in an organization should be grouped together under one manager. This administrative principle is known as ____.
unity of direction
A management perspective that emerged around the late nineteenth century that emphasized understanding human behavior,needs, and attitudes in the workplace is referred to as a(n) ____.
humanistic perspective
A management perspective that suggests jobs should be designed to meet higher-level needs by allowing workers to use their full potential is called a(n) ____.
human resources perspective
Organizational development is one specific set of management techniques based in the ____ approach
behavioral sciences
A management perspective that emerged after World War II and applied mathematics statistics, and other quantitative techniques to managerial problems is referred to as a(n)____.
management science perspective
____ refers to the field of management that specializes in the physical production of goods or services.
Operations management
The concept that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts is known as ____.
synergy
The ____ view of management is an integration of the case and universalist viewpoints.
supply chain management
The process by which companies find out how others do something better than they do and then try to copy and /or improve it is known as ____.
benchamarking
___ refers to the sequence of suppliers and purchasers covering all stages of processing from obtaining raw materials to distributing finished goods to consumers.
Supply chain managementt
___ collect and manage large amounts of data about customers and make them available to employees enabling better decision making and superior customer service.
Customer relationship management systems (CRMsystems)
List three of the basic ideas of scientific management.
Any three of the following develop standard methods for doing each o&J select workers with appropriate a&ilitiesJ train workers in standard methodsJ support workers and eliminate interruptionsJ and provide wage incentives.
List the three assumptions associated with McGregor’s Theory X.
ndividuals have an innate dislike of work and will try to avoid itJ B2 Most people must &e coerced to get them to put out a reasona&le level of effortJ and B# The typical person prefers to &e told what to do
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Taylor’s Scientific Management.
The advantages of scientific management included the standardiation of work the systematic study of work the linking of performance and pay and improved productivity. The disadvantages included its failure to consider the social contet within which work took place and its failure to appreciate workers4 needs other than their need for money.
The writings of Fayol, Taylor, and Weber provide the foundation for modern management. identify the school of thought associated with each writer and compare the focus that each writer takes in relation to the organization.
1. Individual have an innate dislike of worka nd will try to avoid it;2. Most people must be cocrceed to get them to put out a reasonable level of effort; 3. the typical person perfers to be told what to do.
Briefly describe what happened in the Hawthorne Studies and explain the results and conclusions of these studies. Harvard researchers working under the direction of Elton Mayo, were studying the effects of various lighting conditions on worker performance at the Western Electric
plant in Hawthorne, Illinois. Each time an experimental change was made, performance improved regardless of the change. The early conclusion was that workers perceived that their work was important enough to hire researchers to work with them and this recognition of importance was sufficient to motivate improved performance. This conclusion led to the development of the Human Relations Movement stressing the importance of satisfied happy workers. Recent analysis suggests that money may have been the single most important motivating factor.
Describe the assumptions behind McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. How do the theories relate to the classical perspective on management and early human relations ideas?Refer to Exhi&it 2.4 in the text for the assumptions behind each theory.
McGregor believed that the classical perspective was based on Theory X assumptions about workers. He also felt that a slightly modified version of Theory X fit early human relations ideas. He proposed Theory Y as a more realistic view of workers for guiding management thinking
Briefly describe systems theory including synergy.Systems theory suggests that an organization can be considered a system composed of a number of interrelated subsystems. These subsystems include people, structure technology, and goals
. A change in one subsystem results in a rippling effect on the other subsystems. Managed properly the subsystems work well together and produce more as a whole system than the parts could produce working alone. This is synergy.
Discuss the differences between the case view,with universalist view, and the contingency view.These viewpoints relate to the applicability of management principles. The case view holds that every situation is unique thus there are no universal principles.
Conversely, the universalist view &elieves that the same management principles will work across every situation in every organization. The contingency view is an integration of these two i.e., while there are no universal principles there are common patterns and characteristics. The manager’s task is to identify what principles will work when based on an analysis of key contingencies.
Administrative principles approach
A subfield of the classical perspective that focuses on the total organization rather than the individual worker and delineates the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.
Behavioral sciences approach
Draws from psychology, sociology, and other social sciences to develop theories about human behavior and interaction in an organizational setting.
Bureaucratic organizations approach
Takes a rational, scientific approach to management and seeks to turn organizations into efficient operating machines.
Classical perspective
Tells managers that what works in one organizational situation might not work in others.
Contingency view
Systems that use information technology to keep in close touch with customers, collect and manage large amounts of customer data, and provide superior customer value.
Customer relationship management (CRM)
Affects the availability, production, and distribution of a society’s resources
Economic force
A series of research efforts that was important in shaping ideas concerning how managers should treat workers.
Hawthorne studies
Stresses the satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased productivity.
Human relations movement
Suggests that jobs should be designed to meet people’s higher-level needs by allowing employees to use their full potential.
Human resources perspective
Emphasizes understanding human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the workplace.
Humanistic perspective
The hardware, software, telecommunications, database management, and other technologies used to store, process, and distribute information.
Information technology (IT)
An internal communications system that uses the technology and standards of the Internet but is accessible only to people within the organization.
Intranet
The process of systematically gather knowledge, making it widely available throughout the organization, and fostering a culture of learning.
Knowledge management
Uses mathematics, statistical techniques, and computer technology to facilitate management decision making, particularly for complex problems. Also called the quantitative perspective.
Management science
The field of management that uses various tools and techniques to ensure that goods and services are produced efficiently and delivered successfully to customers or clients.
Operations management
Relates to the influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations.
Political force
Refers to financial managers and others who make decisions based primarily on complex quantitative analysis.
Quants
A subfield of the classical perspective that emphasizes scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity.
Scientific management
Aspects of a society that guide and influence relationships among people, such as their values, needs, and standards of behavior.
Social forces
Include online community pages, social media sites, microblogging platforms, and company online forums that enable managers to interact electronically with employees, customers, partners, and other stakeholders.