Chapter 2 – Self-Management and Self-Planning Skills for Health Behaviour Change

Adherence
Adopting and sticking with healthy behaviours (physical activity, nutrition)
stage of change
Level of motivational readiness to adopt a specific healthy behaviour
personal factors
Factors like age/gender related to healthy lifestyle adherence (not always under own control)
predisposing factors
Factors making one more likely to adopt a healthy lifestyle (participating in regular activity as part of a normal routine)
enabling factors
Factors helping one carry out a healthy lifestyle plan
reinforcing factors
Factors that help encourage maintaining a healthy lifestyle (physical activity, for a lifetime)
self confidence
Believing one can be successful
self efficacy
Confidence that one can perform a specific task (a type of specific self-confidence)
short term goals
Stating an intent to change a behaviour/achieve an outcome in a period of days or weeks
long term goals
Stating an intent to change a behaviour/achieve an outcome in a period of months or years
general goals
Broad statements of reasons to accomplish something (changing a behaviour such as eating better, being more active, losing weight etc)
S.M.A.R.T. goals
Specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, timely
behavioural goal
Stating an intent to perform a specific behaviour for a specific amount of time (I’ll do cardio for 10 minutes a day)
outcome goal
Stating an intent to achieve a specific test score associated with good health, wellness, or fitness (I’ll lower my bodyfat to X%)
Practicing one healthy lifestyle doesn’t mean one will practice another, though adopting one healthy behaviour often leads to adopting another
o College students are physically active, but drink lots and eat poorly
o Smokers who begin physical activity usually decide to stop smoking
Five stages of lifestyle change
1. Precontemplation – I don’t want to change
2. Contemplation – I am thinking about change
3. Preparation – I am getting ready to make a lifestyle change
4. Action – I have made some lifestyle changes
5. Maintenance (usually 6 months in) – I regularly practice healthy lifestyles

(Once maintenance is attained, relapse is less likely to occur)

Four factors that influence behaviour
• Personal factors(Precontemplation and contemplation)
• Age, gender, heredity, current health and fitness
• Predisposing factors (Contemplation, preparation, and action)
• Am I able?: Self-confidence, self-efficacy, safe environment, access
• Is it worth it?: Self-motivation, enjoyment, balanced attitudes, beliefs, knowledge
• Enabling factors (Preparation, action, and maintenance)
• Goal setting, self-assessment, self-monitoring, self-planning, performance skills, coping skills, consumer skills, time management
• Reinforcement factors (Action, and maintenance)
• Success, family support, peer support, support of health professionals
self management skills for changing predisposing factors
• Overcoming barriers (learn skills to overcome other barriers)
• Building self-confidence and motivation (take small steps)
• Building knowledge and changing beliefs (base beliefs on sound information; knowledge doesn’t always change beliefs but awareness of facts can help achieve good health)
goal setting skills
• Should be realistic and achievable
• Learning to set goals for behaviour change is important for beginners
self assessment skills
Assessing one’s own fitness, health, and wellness to learn to interpret one’s own self-assessment results
self monitoring skills
• Monitoring one’s behaviour by keeping records
• People think they live a healthy lifestyle when they don’t
• Gives a true picture of what’s going on
• Self-planning skills

(Plan for yourself instead of others planning for you)

performance skills
• Learn skills necessary to perform specific tasks (sports/relaxation)
• Helps one feel confident and enjoy activities
coping skills
Making new ways to think about things, helps one see situations in more than one way and think positively
time management skills
• Have records similar to self-monitoring, focusing on total time use rather than specific behaviours
• Can help plan and adhere to healthy lifestyles
social support
• Get the support of others for healthy lifestyles
• Support of a doctor can help
relapse prevention
• Stick with healthy behaviour once it has been adopted
• It is easy to relapse to an unhealthy lifestyle
• Skills such as avoiding high-risk situations and learning how to say no help one avoid relapse
6 steps for self planning process
1- clarify your reason
2-clarify your needs
3-setting personal goals
4-selecting program components
5-write down your plan
6-evaluate your progress
six step self planning process:

clarifying reasons

Description: Knowing the reasons for changing a behaviour helps determine the type of behaviour change that is most important for one at a specific point in time
identifying needs
o Knowing one’s strengths and weaknesses allows them to plan and build on current strengths and overcome weaknesses
• Self-management skill: Self-assessment
setting personal goals
o Short-term, long-term, general, SMART, behaviour, outcome
• Outcome goals are long-term and depend on things other than lifestyle behaviour
• Beginners should:
o Begin with long-term goals in mind
o Focus on SMART short-term behavioural objectives
o Avoid frequent self-assessments, focus on self-monitoring behaviour
o Make short-term goals than move toward long-term goals
• Experienced people should:
o Start with SMART long-term goals
o Use short-term SMART goals to accomplish long-term goals
o Use self-assessments and self-monitoring to assess progress
• Have maintenance goals once achieving things
• Write down goals to formalize them
• Establishing specific things that one wants to accomplish can provided a basis for feedback that the program is working
• Self-management skill: Goal setting
selection program components
• Description: A personal plan should have the specific program parts that will meet the needs and goals based on steps 1-3 (meal plans, specific activities)
• Self-management skills: Time management, consumer, and performance skills
writing your plan
• Description: Establishes intentions and increases chance of adherence
• Self-management skill: Self-planning
evaluating progress
• Description: Find out what worked and what didn’t
• Self-management skill: Self-monitoring (keeping logs and determining if goals are met), self-assessment (determine if goals are met)
self-management skills for changing enabling factors
goal setting skills
self assessment skills
self monitoring skills
self planning skills
performance skills ( learn the skills necessary for performance)
coping skills
consumer skills ( gain knowledge)
time-management skills