Chapter 2 practice test questions

Strong supplier relations and efficient supply chains help firms such as Walmart to achieve operational excellence.
True
To build a sustainable competitive advantage, companies should focus on a single strategy.
False
It is not always necessary to go through all the steps in the marketing planning process.
True
A mission statement describes the specific actions a firm will take to achieve its goals.
False
iTunes software is often credited for the success of the Apple iPod MP3 player, because it made the iPod easier to use than competing players and was difficult for competitors to duplicate. This is an example of a sustainable competitive advantage.
True
STP refers to segmentation, testing, and promotion.
False
The components of a SWOT analysis are strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and tactics.
False
Firms are typically more successful when they focus on opportunities that build on their competitors’ strengths.
False
Duke’s is a surfer-themed restaurant chain in Hawaii. Most of its customers are tourists. In a SWOT analysis for Duke’s, the possibility that the recession might cut back on tourism in Hawaii would be considered a weakness.
False
Price should be based on the value that the customer perceives.
True
Geraldo manages the electrical turbine engine division of General Electric Corporation. He makes most decisions independently, without consulting headquarters. Geraldo manages a strategic business unit.
True
The strategic planning process always proceeds sequentially through the five steps.
False
Isaac is looking for ways to offer new goods and services to his existing customers. He is pursuing a market development strategy.
False
Sandisk’s MP3 player product line (called the Sansa) has a low relative market share. The MP3 player market is expected to decline over the next few years. In BCG portfolio analysis, the Sansa would be considered a dog.
True
The implement marketing mix step of the strategic marketing planning process is part of the control phase.
False
Relative market share is an example of a marketing metric.
True
Product penetration is one of the four major growth strategies.
False
Firms decide how to allocate resources to their various products and services during the STP step of the marketing planning process.
False
If a firm wants to develop a sustainable competitive advantage, it should

A. begin an aggressive campaign to buy up competitors.

B. copy the innovative features of other firms that are attractive to customers.

C. examine its operations and customer relations to identify significant things competitors cannot easily copy.

D. increase its marketing budget so that it outspends its competitors.

E. arrange to meet with competitors to discuss how to avoid direct competition.

c
Which of the following is NOT one of the four overarching strategies to create and deliver value and to develop sustainable competitive advantages?

A. locational excellence

B. customer excellence

C. operational excellence

D. product excellence

E. planning excellence

e
When Ramona, the keynote speaker at a major business leaders’ conference, arrived in the middle of the night at the Ritz-Carlton, she was exhausted and her suit was wrinkled from her ten-hour plane trip. The night clerk found someone to dry clean Ramona’s suit and have it ready for her morning presentation. She has been a loyal Ritz-Carlton customer ever since. In this example, Ritz-Carlton demonstrated the macro strategy of

A. customer excellence.

B. operational excellence.

C. product excellence.

D. promotional excellence.

E. global excellence.

A
Taking steps to encourage customer loyalty is one way to

A. test new products.

B. promote efficiency.

C. sustain an advantage over competitors.

D. develop new pricing strategies.

E. improve supply chain effectiveness.

C
Some banks have begun offering special accounts designed to attract junior high school students. These kids save in such small amounts that the accounts cost banks more to maintain than they are worth. But bankers know that consumers are creatures of habit and hope that the young people they serve now will become adult customers. These banks recognize

A. that operational excellence is an important macro strategy.

B. the lifetime value of customers.

C. that product excellence leads to loyal customers.

D. the importance of making decisions based on short-term results.

E. that as long as customers bring in some revenue, costs do not matter.

B
Nordstrom’s, an upscale department store, has a well-known reputation for going the extra mile to serve its customers. This reputation for excellent customer service has probably resulted in

A. product design excellence.

B. mission statement satisfaction.

C. sustainable price decreases.

D. a sustainable competitive advantage.

E. producer excellence.

D
Firms achieve ___________ through efficient procedures and excellent supply chain management.

A. customer excellence

B. locational excellence

C. customer loyalty

D. value-based pricing

E. operational excellence

E
Marketers want their firms to develop excellent supply chain management and strong supplier relations so they can

A. persuade stores to refuse to carry competitors’ products.

B. use their power within the supply chain to force weaker firms to accept less favorable pricing.

C. control prices and lock in margins.

D. create a sustainable competitive advantage.

E. justify charging higher prices than competitors do.

D
For many years, Southwest Airlines distinguished itself as the low-cost airline. Now, many other low-cost competitors have entered the market. Similarly, Southwest was one of the first airlines to offer online ticketing. Now, all airlines have online ticketing. These examples suggest that

A. no single strategy is likely to be sufficient to build a sustainable competitive advantage.

B. situation analysis is a continuous process.

C. customers rarely remain loyal to companies.

D. product excellence is the only true source of a sustainable competitive advantage.

E. innovation is pointless because competitors will develop copycat offerings.

A
Effective marketing doesn’t just happen. It is

A. promoted through STP analysis.

B. possible only for seasoned marketing executives to achieve.

C. planned.

D. introduced through control phase SBUs.

E. the result of competitors’ failures.

C
Carla has been directed by her regional marketing manager to cut prices on seasonal items, place an ad in the local paper, and tell distributors to reduce deliveries for the next month. Which step of the strategic marketing planning process is Carla engaged in?

A. evaluate performance

B. define the business mission

C. situation analysis

D. implement marketing mix and resources

E. identify and evaluate opportunities

D
When conducting a SWOT analysis, in what phase of the strategic marketing process is an organization presently engaged?

A. planning

B. implementation

C. control

D. segmentation

E. metrics

A
The automobile manufacturing industry closely watches annual consumer satisfaction surveys. For years, Japanese car companies consistently had the highest levels of customer satisfaction, creating a(n) __________ for these companies.

A. strategic marketing plan

B. clear mission statement

C. operational advantage

D. sustainable competitive advantage

E. diversification strategy

D
Which of the following is LEAST likely to provide a sustainable competitive advantage?

A. lowering prices

B. having a well-known brand name

C. achieving high levels of customer satisfaction

D. using patented technology

E. creating an efficient supply chain

A
Even when large discount retailers enter a market, a few small, local retailers survive and prosper. These small retailers have probably developed a(n) ________ that allows them to survive.

A. advertising campaign

B. plan to evaluate results

C. sustainable competitive advantage

D. set of performance metrics

E. SWOT analysis

C
As part of her company’s SWOT analysis, Valerie is assessing the company’s internal environment, including

A. competition.

B. the economy.

C. strengths and weaknesses.

D. demographics.

E. opportunities and threats.

C
Samantha is charged with assessing her company’s external environment as part of a SWOT analysis. Samantha will study her company’s

A. strengths and weaknesses.

B. sales history.

C. pension plan.

D. product specifications.

E. opportunities and threats.

E
Manufacturers who use just-in-time manufacturing systems coordinate closely with suppliers to ensure that materials and supplies arrive just before they are needed in the manufacturing process. While just-in-time systems can offer major advantages in terms of inventory costs, they must be carefully managed. If a firm found that its just-in-time system was badly managed, leading to frequent manufacturing delays due to missing parts, this would represent a(n) __________ in a SWOT analysis.

A. weakness

B. opportunity

C. threat

D. strength

E. business mission

A
For U.S. businesses with strong export capabilities, expansion of U.S. trade agreements with other countries creates

A. weaknesses.

B. opportunities.

C. strengths.

D. threats.

E. strategic plans.

B
In 2006, Ford Motor Company announced it would severely cut back automobile production. For parts companies supplying Ford Motor, this represented a(n)

A. weakness.

B. opportunity.

C. strength.

D. threat.

E. strategic plan.

D
Lionel is asked to conduct an STP analysis for his firm. The first step he should perform in this analysis is to

A. develop a business mission statement.

B. choose the best target markets.

C. reposition existing segments.

D. divide the marketplace into subgroups.

E. conduct a SWOT analysis.

D
In 2006, Walmart announced that it would begin selling organic food products. In doing so, Walmart was probably trying to

A. gain government subsidies.

B. attract a different market segment.

C. reduce its costs.

D. save the environment.

E. offset cost-based pricing pressure.

B
For years, when considering new products, marketers at Celestial Seasonings asked themselves, “What would Stacy think?” Stacy was a fictional character representing 25-50-year-old, educated, upper-income women who rarely watched television but did a lot of reading. “Stacy” represented Celestial’s primary

A. demographic segment.

B. positioning.

C. SBU.

D. target market segment.

E. sustainable competitive advantage.

D
Many of today’s college graduates will make their living providing goods and services to baby boomers, the large group of Americans born in the period after World War II. Baby boomers are a _________________ market segment.

A. psychological

B. behavioral

C. social

D. product-based

E. demographic

E
After identifying various market segments that her company could pursue, Lisa evaluated each segment’s attractiveness based on size, income, and accessibility. Lisa was involved in

A. target marketing.

B. situation analysis.

C. diversification.

D. positioning.

E. market penetration estimation.

A
LeBron James, Alex Rodriguez, and other athletes are paid huge sums of money by companies for celebrity endorsements. If endorsements by these athletes create a clear understanding among consumers of the companies’ products in comparison to competing products, they can help with the firm’s ________________ strategy.

A. product excellence

B. targeting

C. positioning

D. segmentation

E. customer excellence

C
__________ involves the process of defining the marketing mix variables so that target customers have a clear, distinctive understanding of what a product does or represents in comparison with competing products.

A. Targeting

B. Market segmentation

C. A sustainable competitive advantage

D. Positioning

E. A customer excellence strategy

D
Imagine that you are in a convenience store choosing your favorite comfort food instead of being in a classroom taking this test. You might notice the packaging, colors, labels, even the fonts used on labels. All of these efforts are part of the marketer’s

A. value-based promotions.

B. market segmentation.

C. positioning strategy.

D. customer excellence strategy.

E. target market.

C
When positioning products relative to competitors’ offerings, firms typically are most successful when they focus on opportunities

A. that build on their strengths relative to those of their competitors.

B. for diversification.

C. in international markets.

D. where value-based pricing can be ignored.

E. where customer excellence can be substituted for product excellence.

A
Many small businesses whose competitors are national franchises advertise “we are locally owned” or “we have been here since 1951.” This is part of these firms’

A. business mission.

B. market segmentation strategy.

C. positioning strategy.

D. customer excellence strategy.

E. target market.

C
When discussing the marketing planning process, STP stands for

A. strategies, tactics, and plans.

B. strategize, target, and promote.

C. segmentation, targeting, and positioning.

D. situation analysis, trend spotting, and planning.

E. sustaining, trending, and positioning.

C
Suppose your university made a sizable investment in its career services–additional counselors, increased efforts to bring in recruiters, and other services aimed at helping students to find jobs. This investment would enhance the university’s _____________ in an attempt to create value for students and recent graduates.

A. segmentation strategy

B. place strategy

C. locational excellence strategy

D. diversification strategy

E. product value

E
The idea of value-based marketing requires firms to charge a price that

A. covers costs and generates a modest profit.

B. includes the value of the effort the firm put into the product or service.

C. captures the value customers perceive that they are receiving.

D. prioritizes customer excellence above operational excellence.

E. matches competitors’ prices.

C
E-books, in addition to being an alternative product form, provide __________ value creation since they can be downloaded via the Internet immediately when and where they are needed.

A. product

B. place

C. promotion

D. price

E. primary

B
In value-based marketing, promotion communicates the ________ to customers through a variety of media.

A. targeted solution

B. operational excellence strategy

C. value proposition

D. relative market value

E. target market definition

C
Google and other search engines allow marketers to bid to have their ads shown when consumers search on keywords related to the firm’s products. These marketers are attempting to create value through

A. product.

B. price.

C. promotion.

D. place.

E. cost-based measures.

C
Craig sees that his company’s quarterly sales and profits are significantly above projections and says, “That’s great. Let’s keep doing what we’ve been doing.” Craig is ignoring the __________ step of the marketing planning process.

A. evaluate performance

B. define the business mission

C. situation analysis

D. implement marketing mix and resources

E. identify and evaluate opportunities

A
The first objective in the evaluate performance phase of the marketing planning process is to

A. determine whether to raise or lower prices.

B. adjust advertising allocations.

C. find ways to cut costs.

D. review implementation programs and results using metrics.

E. consider changing the target market.

D
Kathy reviews her division’s quarterly results and sees that some units exceeded goals while others did not. Next, she will attempt to determine why performance of the different units varied, and whether the variation

A. created a net benefit or loss.

B. should be reported to senior executives.

C. was consistent with the company’s mission statement.

D. offers opportunities for diversification.

E. was due to factors within or outside the firm’s control.

E
Understanding the causes of performance, regardless of whether that performance exceeded, met, or fell below the firm’s goals

A. enables firms to make appropriate adjustments.

B. allows managers to demonstrate their effectiveness.

C. offers insights into value-based pricing.

D. should be followed by eliminating underperforming SBUs.

E. allows firms to better assess customer loyalty.

A
A regional manager at GNC, a chain of retail stores selling nutritional supplements, is reviewing sales data after a recent in-store promotion. The data show success in some stores and limited response in others. The manager will probably next review the company’s

A. financial statements, to investigate current and past profits.

B. brand awareness study, to assess national levels of awareness.

C. implementation programs, to see if the promotion was handled consistently in the different stores.

D. results for other product lines, to see how important diet products are to the firm.

E. analysis of national trends in vitamins and herbal supplements, to help predict future sales.

C
After conducting STP analysis for her custom auto parts store and developing strategies for each of the four Ps, Monique now has to make _____________ decisions.

A. competitive response

B. resource allocation

C. product line

D. market growth

E. mission statement

B
Lamar owns four dry cleaning stores in the suburbs of Orlando, Florida. He recently updated his STP analysis and has just finished adjusting his marketing mix based on the STP results. His next strategic marketing decision will likely involve determining

A. how Disney World crowds will affect his business.

B. which employees to promote or fire.

C. how to allocate resources among his four stores.

D. what new government regulations might create opportunities or threats.

E. when to shift from a customer excellence to an operational excellence strategy.

C
In most companies, portfolio management is typically done at the SBU or ___________ level of the firm.

A. corporate

B. product line

C. customer care

D. sales representative

E. accounting

B
A(n) ___________ is a group of products that consumers may use together or perceive as similar in some way.

A. SBU

B. STP

C. product line

D. market segment

E. promotional service

C
Heather has been assessing a number of her firm’s products using, the Boston Consulting Group approach to portfolio analysis. She has been trying to assess the strength in a particular market and is looking at the sales of the product and the overall market as well as the sales of competitors. Heather is trying to determine:

A. the product’s relative market share.

B. the market growth rate.

C. a source of competitive advantage.

D. the impact of population shifts on future demand.

E. cash equivalent values for each product.

A
To determine how attractive a particular market is, using the BCG portfolio analysis, __________________ is established as one axis.

A. competitive intensity

B. sales dollars

C. market size

D. market growth rate

E. market profit potential

D
In BCG portfolio analysis, products in low-growth markets that have received heavy investment and now have excess funds available to support other products are called

A. stars.

B. cash cows.

C. question marks.

D. dogs.

E. anchors.

B
Fernando was thrilled to find out that his company had just decided to invest a great deal of money in the product he was managing. He knows that even with its recent high rate of growth and the fact that it dominates its market, he would need more money to establish it firmly. Using the BCG portfolio analysis, his product would be classified as a(n)

A. star.

B. cash cow.

C. question mark.

D. dog.

E. anchor.

A
Using the BCG portfolio analysis, a dog should be phased out unless

A. its marketing manager is a champion of the product.

B. additional resources could increase its relative market share slightly.

C. it complements or boosts the sales of another product.

D. the market has a small chance of rebounding.

E. none of these. Dogs should be phased out.

C
The strategic marketing planning process

A. is a five-step process that should always be completed in order.

B. is frequently used in reverse.

C. begins with establishing specific, measurable outcomes.

D. is not always sequential.

E. forces marketing managers to think rationally.

D
Which of the following is NOT one of the four major growth strategies marketers typically use?

A. market penetration

B. market development

C. segment development

D. diversification

E. product development

C
For many years, because of the size of the U.S. economy, domestic companies ignored international markets, preferring instead to develop new product offerings for existing customers. These companies were pursuing a ________________ strategy.

A. market penetration

B. market development

C. segment development

D. diversification

E. product development

E
Adrienne decides to add new sales representatives and increase advertising in her existing market for her current line of security systems. Adrienne is pursuing a __________ growth strategy.

A. segment development

B. market development

C. market penetration

D. diversification

E. product development

C
A __________ growth strategy employs the existing marketing offering to reach new market segments.

A. product proliferation

B. market development

C. market penetration

D. diversification

E. product development

B
Quitman Enterprises sells its business language dictionary to college students throughout the United States. Joseph Quitman, the owner, wants to start selling the book to international students abroad. Quitman wants to pursue a __________________ growth strategy.

A. product proliferation

B. market development

C. market penetration

D. diversification

E. product development

B
When pursuing a market development strategy, expanding into international markets is generally

A. more risky than expansion in domestic markets.

B. impossible due to negative attitudes about American products.

C. executed with the help of international trade subsidies.

D. simplified by creating new products for export markets.

E. the only option offering substantial opportunities for growth.

A
H&R is a small, local heating and air conditioning business. The area military base is a potential source of growth, and H&R already installs and services the type of equipment the military would require, but it is difficult to get established as a certified government contractor. H&R is considering a ____________ growth strategy.

A. product proliferation

B. market development

C. market penetration

D. diversification

E. product development

B
Many states create licensing requirements for a variety of professionals (such as lawyers and accountants) designed to restrict entry into their market by professionals from other states. This strategy limits ____________ growth strategies.

A. product proliferation

B. market development

C. market penetration

D. diversification

E. product development

B
Marketers who design and offer new products and services to their existing customers are pursuing a ____________________ growth strategy.

A. product proliferation

B. market development

C. market penetration

D. diversification

E. product development

E
Most banks now have customer relationship software which, when a customer contacts the bank, tells the service representative what types of accounts, loans, and credit cards the customer currently has. Service representatives use this information to sell some of the other services the bank currently offers to these customers. This is a ___________________ growth strategy.

A. product proliferation

B. market development

C. market penetration

D. diversification

E. product development

C
Maryam called her auto insurance agent to renew her policy. The agent told her about new types of insurance that are now available–to cover her apartment, or even the engagement ring she just got from her fiancé. The agent was pursuing a ________________ growth strategy.

A. product development

B. market development

C. market penetration

D. diversification

E. product proliferation

A
Introducing newly developed products or services to a market segment the company is not currently serving is called

A. product development.

B. market development.

C. market penetration.

D. diversification.

E. product proliferation.

D
Zara is a women’s clothing retailer headquartered in Spain, with stores located in many countries. Zara has developed a quick-response system that allows store merchandise to be adjusted rapidly to fit changing customer preferences. Every aspect of Zara’s operation is optimized for this system, making it difficult for competitors like The Gap to duplicate. Zara has established

A. customer loyalty.

B. locational excellence.

C. a diversification growth strategy.

D. a sustainable competitive advantage.

E. a related diversification opportunity.

D
Fourteenth National Bank prides itself on offering better service than any of its competitors. If this is accurate, and if customers recognize and value Fourteenth National’s superior service, the bank creates and delivers value through

A. promotional excellence.

B. product excellence.

C. operational excellence.

D. global excellence.

E. customer excellence.

E
Anita has gone to the same hair salon for the past ten years. She believes that her stylist, the salon owner, does a better job of cutting and styling her hair than anyone else could. Other salons have opened closer to Anita’s home, some offering more plush facilities or lower prices, but she isn’t tempted to switch. Anita’s attitude toward the salon is an example of

A. a sustainable competitive advantage.

B. a customer retention program.

C. an opportunity, in SWOT analysis.

D. customer loyalty.

E. the benefits of a locational excellence strategy.

D
Customer retention programs are based on what concept?

A. Customer excellence is the easiest macro strategy to follow.

B. Customer relationships should be viewed from a lifetime value perspective.

C. It is important to maximize profits in the first few months of a customer relationship.

D. Segmentation, targeting, and positioning analysis should not be rushed.

E. Firms must spend large amounts of money to retain customers.

B
Most banks implement customer retention programs aimed at their best customers. They do this because they know that retaining customers usually results in

A. a product development growth strategy.

B. an operational advantage.

C. opportunities for diversification.

D. increased long term profits.

E. more clearly defined market segments.

D
Some universities offer online degree programs, competing with traditional colleges based on the convenience of taking online courses. These online programs are pursuing which macro strategy?

A. Customer excellence

B. Locational excellence

C. Operational excellence

D. Product excellence

E. Purchase excellence

B
When a pharmaceutical company develops a new medication, it typically applies for a patent to prevent competitors from developing copycat products for several years. Pharmaceutical companies apply for patents to establish

A. an operational excellence macro strategy.

B. a market penetration growth strategy.

C. a sustainable competitive advantage.

D. an efficient supply chain.

E. product efficiency.

C
One example of a customer loyalty program is

A. a frequent diner card at a restaurant, offering a free appetizer for every $100 in food purchases.

B. a quantity discount offered for large purchases at an office supply store.

C. seasonal sales on top selling items.

D. an everyday low price policy on all products at a grocery store.

E. an extensive customer service training program for new employees at a hair salon.

A
Which of the following is the third step in the marketing planning process?

A. define the business mission

B. identify opportunities

C. evaluate using a matrix

D. implement marketing mix and allocate resources

E. situation analysis

B
In mid-2010, Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) acquired Palm Computing, Inc., a manufacturer of personal devices and smart phones. Before deciding to acquire the company, strategic planners at HP spent time thinking about how Palm and HP would fit together, and how the acquisition might change HP’s core goals and objectives. The strategic planners were engaged in the ____________ step of the marketing planning process.

A. situation analysis

B. implement marketing mix and allocate resources

C. identify and evaluate opportunities

D. evaluate performance

E. define the business mission

E
After defining the business mission, what should a firm do next to develop a marketing plan?

A. Conduct an STP analysis.

B. Perform a situation analysis.

C. Develop a positioning strategy.

D. Select a target market.

E. Implement the four Ps.

B
In a SWOT analysis, increasing gasoline prices would represent a potential __________ for manufacturers of electric cars.

A. weakness

B. threat

C. opportunity

D. operational advantage

E. locational advantage

C
A former advertising campaign for GEICO Insurance used the slogan, “So easy, even a caveman could do it” to emphasize the ease of buying insurance on GEICO’s website. This campaign was part of GEICO’s

A. mission statement.

B. market segmentation plan.

C. product strategy.

D. customer excellence strategy.

E. positioning strategy.

E
Abercrombie & Fitch, a clothing retailer, includes a SHARE link on the product pages of its website. This link encourages an Abercrombie customer to post a link (perhaps showing a new style of jeans) on Facebook or Twitter. Abercrombie & Fitch hopes that the customer’s friends (who are probably very much like current customers) will click the link, visit the page, and make purchases. This is an example of a __________ growth strategy.

A. product proliferation

B. market development

C. market penetration

D. diversification

E. product development

C
Sodexo is a corporation that manages school cafeterias, university dining halls, mess halls at military bases, concession stands at sports arenas, and other large-scale food service facilities. If Sodexo were to begin to sell individual frozen meals in supermarkets, it would be pursuing a __________ growth strategy.

A. product development

B. market development

C. market penetration

D. diversification

E. product proliferation

D
Singapore Airlines seeks to differentiate itself from competing airlines, in part through innovative design of its airplane seats and in-flight entertainment systems. Through continuous innovation in these areas, Singapore Airlines is pursuing a(n) __________ macro strategy.

A. customer excellence

B. global excellence

C. locational excellence

D. operational excellence

E. product excellence

E
3M involves its customers in the process of developing new products. In this way, it can benefit from current customers’ insights and develop new products that will meet these customers’ needs. 3M is pursuing a __________ growth strategy.

A. diversification

B. market development

C. market penetration

D. product development

E. product penetration

D
Over the past few months, Juan and his colleagues have analyzed the current business situation and identified target markets for his firm’s personal care products. Finally, they developed the products, prices, distribution and promotion that should appeal to each of those target markets. In doing so, Juan has also identified what he believes is an advantage his competitors cannot match. Juan and his colleagues have been developing

A. a business mission statement.

B. a strategic vision.

C. team-building exercises.

D. a marketing strategy.

E. competitive assessments.

D
Gerald’s Tire Store sets itself apart from competitors by the extra attention it pays to providing fast, courteous service in a clean, professional-looking environment. Gerald’s has used this strategy for over 40 years, expanding to 15 outlets. Gerald’s Tire Store has created a ___________________ to create and deliver value and to develop a sustainable competitive advantage.

A. segmentation strategy

B. set of metrics

C. market development strategy

D. diversification strategy

E. macro, or overarching, strategy

E
Which of the following is the best way to build a sustainable competitive advantage using product excellence?

A. being the first to offer customers desired features, even if competitors can copy them easily

B. positioning the product using a clear, distinctive brand image

C. having the most features on each model

D. focusing on being cutting edge and continually eliminating older features that are still in use by customers

E. copying the market leader’s features, but at a lower cost

B
A competitive advantage based on location is often sustainable because

A. mobile marketing has not yet proven its value for most customers.

B. real estate prices have been dropping.

C. few marketers are aware of its importance yet.

D. it is not easily duplicated.

E. the Internet has diminished the importance of brick and mortar stores.

D
Four companies dominate the cereal industry. These firms produce in large volumes, promote heavily, and control access to the supermarket shelves through slotting allowances, which are payments to retailers in return for shelf space. Combined, these four firms have

A. identical marketing mixes.

B. customer excellence.

C. a sustainable competitive advantage.

D. achieved product excellence.

E. violated laws governing competition.

C
Value creation through place decisions for a consumer product involves

A. putting the product in the front of the store.

B. designing creative displays to capture consumers’ attention.

C. pricing products differently at different stores.

D. making sure the product is available in the stores where customers will want to find it, and that it is always in stock so they can buy it when they want to.

E. focusing exclusively on Internet sales to reduce supply chain costs.

D
In recent years, cellular (mobile) service providers have worked hard to eliminate dead zones, providing customers with service wherever they traveled. By working to make the network available in more locations, cellular service companies were focusing on __________ value creation.

A. product

B. price

C. promotion

D. place

E. financial

D
When firms successfully implement poor strategies (perhaps due to good luck) or do a poor job of implementing good strategies, it can be difficult to

A. generate cost-based performance ratios.

B. evaluate performance and make adjustments.

C. increase product excellence without reducing customer excellence.

D. develop segmentation strategies.

E. choose a business mission.

B
In 2007, Apple Computer introduced its new iPhone, adding a cellular telephone, a camera, and Internet access to its iPod. The company was pursuing a(n) __________ strategy.

A. market development

B. market penetration

C. operational excellence

D. customer excellence

E. product development

E
Allen is in the marketing department of a mid-sized firm that develops and sells communications systems. He is proud of the Human Resources area in the company that provides the firm with excellent employees. Allen himself really enjoys his work, but he knows the work of HR helps create an operational advantage for the firm because of all of the following EXCEPT

A. customers appreciate the kind of service that knowledgeable employees provide.

B. employees play a major role in the success of the firm.

C. it is easier to communicate with and inspire the customer if the employees believe in what the firm is doing.

D. building customer loyalty depends on a committed workforce.

E. the company provides products with a high perceived value.

E
Which of the following actions, if it actually happened, would be the most likely to support and enhance an operational excellence macro strategy?

A. Singapore Airlines, installing more comfortable seats in the economy-class cabins of its airplanes.

B. 3M Corporation, implementing new software to improve communication with its suppliers.

C. adidas, inviting customer suggestions to guide the design of the next generation of Air Jordan shoes.

D. Nike, opening hundreds of new company stores in high-traffic shopping areas.

E. McDonald’s, lowering prices on its coffee drinks.

B
Which of the following factors, listed in a situation analysis for a major U.S. auto manufacturer, is the best example of a threat?

A. The factory that manufactures a new, popular car cannot build enough vehicles to meet the demand, while other factories have excess capacity.

B. Recent consumer studies have indicated that Chinese consumers prefer American cars.

C. A New York law firm has filed a $10 million class action suit against the company on behalf of car owners whose gas tanks exploded.

D. Due to outdated engine technology, the company’s cars get lower gas mileage than those of major competitors.

E. The company has lower manufacturing costs than its key competitors, allowing it to sell its cars at low prices.

C
Which of the following factors, listed in a situation analysis for a major U.S. auto manufacturer, is the best example of an opportunity?

A. The factory that manufactures a new, popular car cannot build enough vehicles to meet the demand, while other factories have excess capacity.

B. Recent consumer studies have indicated that Chinese consumers prefer American cars.

C. A New York law firm has filed a $10 million class action suit against the company on behalf of car owners whose gas tanks exploded.

D. Due to outdated engine technology, the company’s cars get lower gas mileage than those of major competitors.

E. The company has lower manufacturing costs than its key competitors, allowing it to sell its cars at low prices.

B
When Nike, the prominent athletic shoe manufacturer, branched out from selling only athletic shoes to also offering athletic clothing and gym bags, what type of growth strategy did this represent?

A. market penetration

B. product penetration

C. market development

D. product development

E. diversification

D
113. In its discussion of Nike and adidas, two major athletic shoe manufacturers, the text mentions that Nike has purchased Umbro, a sports brand that has appealed mainly to soccer (European football) enthusiasts in the past. This action suggests that Nike intends to compete head to head with adidas, which got its start designing soccer shoes. On a SWOT analysis for adidas, how should Nike’s acquisition of Umbro be categorized?

A. Strength

B. Opportunity

C. Weakness

D. Segment

E. Threat

E
The global athletic footwear market is expected to experience only very slow growth over the next several years. Nike is the market leader, with a market share of approximately 33 percent. According to Boston Consulting Group portfolio analysis, how should Nike treat its athletic shoe business?

A. Nike will probably have to invest heavily in the athletic shoe business, including extensive promotions and new production facilities.

B. Nike should consider exiting the athletic shoe market.

C. Nike should stop investing in its athletic shoe business; it has already reaped all the benefits it is likely to receive.

D. Nike’s athletic shoe business still requires some investment but is likely to produce excess resources that can be invested in other divisions of the company.

E. Nike should invest in the athletic shoe market only if it helps to boost the sales of other products in fast-growing markets.

D
Subway is a large chain of franchise sandwich shops. Marcia owns three Subway stores in a large city. At the end of the year, she notes that sales rose from two to five percent over last year’s sales at Stores 1 and 2 but fell two percent at Store 3. Based on this information, how should Marcia reward (or punish) her store managers?

A. She should give bonuses to the managers of Stores 1 and 2 and put the Store 3 manager on probation.

B. She should ignore the sales data; this is not an appropriate marketing metric.

C. She should give each manager a raise, tied to the store results.

D. She should review at least ten years of sales data about her stores’ performance before making a decision.

E. She should seek more information about why the stores had different results before making a decision.

E
Coca-Cola sells two zero-calorie versions of Coke: Diet Coke and Coke Zero. It has chosen to attempt to appeal to men with Coke Zero. In addition to launching an ad campaign featuring men enjoying Coke Zero, Coca-Cola also designed a masculine looking can for Coke Zero, with bold red lettering on a black background. This specially designed can is an example of

A. positioning.

B. targeting.

C. segmentation.

D. a market segment.

E. market penetration.

A
Delta Airlines is among the companies experimenting with selling products and services on its Facebook pages. The idea is to make purchasing even easier for customers who may spend large portions of the day with Facebook active on their computers or mobile devices. There is no need even to navigate to Delta’s website–users can book a trip in Delta’s Ticket Agent application without ever leaving Facebook. Which element of the marketing mix does this represent?

A. product and value creation

B. price and value capture

C. place and value delivery

D. promotion and value communication

E. positioning and value promotion

C
A marketing strategy identifies three things: ________, a related marketing mix, and the bases on which the firm plans to build a sustainable competitive advantage.

A. customer value

B. a mission statement

C. marketing metrics

D. a firm’s target markets

E. a product plan

D
Because it was able to deliver merchandise overnight, in the required quantities and at a lower delivered cost than its competitors, Joe’s Sports Shack was given exclusive rights to sell clothing with school logos for the school district. Joe’s demonstrates ________ excellence.

A. product

B. place

C. customer

D. operational

E. locational

D
During which phase of the marketing planning process does a firm identify and evaluate different opportunities by engaging in segmentation, targeting, and positioning?

A. planning phase

B. implementation phase

C. evaluation phase

D. control phase

E. strategy phase

B
During a SWOT analysis, a company should assess the opportunities and uncertainties of the marketplace due to changes in several factors, given the acronym CDSTEP. Which of the following is NOT one of these factors?

A. ethical

B. cultural

C. political

D. technological

E. demographic

A
The process of dividing the market into groups of customers with different needs, wants, or characteristics is called

A. target marketing.

B. market segmentation.

C. positioning.

D. allocation.

E. value capture.

B
________ involves the process of defining the marketing mix variables so that target customers have a clear, distinctive, desirable understanding of what the product does or represents in comparison with competing products.

A. Target marketing

B. Market segmentation

C. Market positioning

D. Allocation

E. Value capture

C
If a price is set too high, it will not generate much ________; if it is set too low, it may result in ________.

A. interest; less value to the customer

B. volume; lower margins and profits

C. promotional value; less customer value

D. operational opportunity; less product value

E. place value; more customer defections

B
The metrics used to evaluate a firm vary depending on the level of the organization at which the decision is made, and

A. the corporate consciousness of the firm.

B. the profit realized on the merchandise.

C. the resources the manager controls.

D. the internal structure of the company.

E. external factors, such as the economy and the cost of materials.

C
A product that is in a high-growth market but has a low market share would be classified as ________ on the BCG matrix.

A. latent

B. dog

C. cash cow

D. star

E. question mark

E