Chapter 2 Management Principles Applied to Sport Management

History
Goal of sports managers: get workers to do what the manager wants in an efficient and cost-effective manner
Management theory evolved through two phases:scientific method and human relations movement
Today’s use of organizational behavior: study and application of the human side of management and organizations
Scientific Management
Taylorism: workers should not be doing the same job different ways but instead in the one best way or most efficient way
Division of labor
Manager can get workers to perform job the best way by enticing them with rewards: money, promotions
Human Relations
Hawthorne studies: social factors in the workplace were important, and job satisfaction and output depended more on cooperation and a feeling of worth
Mary Parker Follet: effective, motivational management existed in partnership and cooperation
Organizational Behavior
Study and application of human side of management
Includes dealing with modern changes of downsizing, globalization, information technology (communications: social media) and diversity
Human resources is lasting competitive advantage
Functional Areas
Sport managers must perform in a number of functional areas and execute various activities in fulfilling the demands of their jobs
Areas including planning, organizing (constantly evolving), leading and evaluating
Planning
Defining organization goals and determining the appropriate means by which to achieve these desired goals
Setting course of action for the sport organization
Organizational plans should change and evolve: should not be viewed as set in stone
Managers must participate in both short-term and long-term planning
Organizing
Putting plans into action: manager determines what types of jobs need to be performed and who will be responsible for doing these jobs
Develop an organizational chart
Develop position descriptions
Develop position qualifications
Staffing: selection, orientation, training and development of staff members
Leading
“Action” part of the management process
Delegation: involves assigning responsibility and accountability for results to employees
managers must manage any differences or changes that may take place in organization
Managers handle conflicts, work problems, or communication difficulties; stimulate creativity; and motivate employees
Evaluating
Measuring and ensuring progress toward organizational objectives
Progress is accomplished by the employees effectively carrying out their duties
Establish reporting systems, developing performance standards, compare employee performance to set standards and design reward system
People Skills
Sports management industry is a “people-intensive industry”
Interaction with unique clientele
Must be able to treat all people fairly, ethically, and with respect
Communcation
Knowing how to say something to another person is equally as important as knowing what to say to another person
Answering each question professionally and courteously wins a lifelong fan
Sport managers must be able to treat all people fairly, ethically and with respect
Sports managers are often asked to give speeches
Sport managers must be able to write in many different styles
Managing Diversity
Diversity: differences between individuals, including age, race, gender, sexual orientation, disability, education and social background
Women and minorities still underrepresented in managerial positions in the sport industry: more women, people of color, and people with disabilities are needed to managerial level in the sport industry
Employment process: recruitment, screening, selection, retention, promotion, and ending employment
Rooney Rule: racist