emphasized careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support. Frederick Taylor- People are rational.
Classical Management Approaches
Scientific Management, Administrative Principles, Bureaucratic Organization
Principles of Scientific Management- People are Rational.
The science of reducing a talk to its basic physical motions. Scientific Management concept.
Concepts of Scientific Management-
Make results-based compensation a incentive. Make jobs efficient. Carefully select skilled employees. Train workers to perform the best. Train supervisors to support workers.
Five rules/duties of Management. – Four functions of management. Fayol
Five rules/duties of Management
Foresight. Organization. Command. Coordination. Control.
Four Functions of Management
Planning, organizing, leading, controlling.
19th Century. Max Weber- Credited with founding Bureaucracy, an ideal intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization.
a rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order, and legitimate authority.
Defining characteristics of Weber’s Bureaucracy
Clear division of labor, clear hierarchy of authority, formal rules and procedure, impersonality, careers based on merit.
Behavioral Management Approaches
Follett’s organizations as communities, Hawthorne Studies, Maslow’s theory of human needs, McGregor’s theory X and theory Y, Argyris’s theory of adult personality.
Modern Management Foundations
Quantitative Analysis and tools, Organizations as systems, Contingency thinking, Quality management, Knowledge management and organizational learning, Evidence-based management.
The study of individuals and groups in organizations.
Organizations as Communities
Mary Follett- important transition from classical management to behavioral management. Communities in which managers and workers should labor in harmony without one party dominating the other.
The Hawthorne Studies
Initially applied a scientific management perspective to understand how incentives and physical conditions affect employee productivity. Ultimately determine- Psychological factors influence productivity.
Hawthorne Studies Lessons
The studies pointed the attention of managers and researchers toward social and human factors as keys to productivity.
The tendency of people who are singled out for special attention to perform as anticipated because of expectations created by the situation.
Maslow’s Theory of Human Needs
Workers are motivated to solve a deficit need.
Maslow’s Hierarchy (in order)
Self-Actualization needs, Esteems needs, Social needs, Safety needs, physiological needs.
a need is activated only when next-lower-level need is satisfied.
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Heavily influenced by Hawthorn and Maslow. Shift from theory X/theory Y. Theory X assumes people dislike work, lack ambition, act irresponsibility, resistant to change. Theory Y- assumes people are willing to work, capable of self-control, willing to accept responsibility.
Occurs when a persona acts in ways that confirm another’s expectations.
Argyris’s Theory of Adult Personality
Chris Argyris- common problems of employee absenteeism, turnover, apathy, alienation, and low morale may be signs of a mismatch. He argues that managers that treat people positively and as responsible adults will achieve the highest productivity.
Modern Management Foundations DUP
Include quantitative analysis and tools, a systems view of organizations, contingency thinking, commitment to quality management, the role of knowledge management learning organizations, and the importance of evidence-based management.
The systematic analysis of large databases to solve problems and make informed decisions.
Quantitative Analysis and Tools
To use quantitative analysis to mine available data and make management decisions.
Organizations as Systems
Organizations have long been described as cooperative systems that achieve great things by combining resources and the contributions of many individuals to achieve a common purpose.
Is a collection of interrelated parts working together for a purpose.
Is a smaller component of a larger system
Interacts with its environment and transforms resource inputs into outputs.
Tries to match management practices with situational demands/tries to help managers understand situational differences and respond to them in ways that fit their unique characteristics.
Deming- cornerstone of the quality movement in management. Tally defects, analyze, and trace them to the source, make corrections, and keep a record of what happens afterward.
Total Quality Management
TQM- an organization-wide commitment to continuous improvement, product quality, and customer needs.
Involves always searching for new ways to improve work quality and performance.
Indicates conformance with a rigorous set of international quality standards.
Continuously changes and improves, using lessons of experience.
Peter Senge- By virtue of people, values, and systems is able to continuously change and improve its performance based on lessons of experience.
Involves making decisions based on hard facts about what really works.