Chapter 2 Consumer Behavior

What was the challenge facing FedEx in the Chapter 2 opener?
A) to influence Asian governments to allow FedEx to operate in their countries
B) to increase awareness in Africa of the benefits of FedEx
C) to increase awareness in Eastern Europe with a commercial that would work across this region with its differing cultures and languages
D) to increase awareness in Latin America and the Caribbean with a commercial that would work across this region with its differing cultures and languages
E) to influence Brazilian regulators to allow it to operate its service after normal working hours
D
Which of the following is a cultural factor that affects consumer behavior and marketing strategy?
A) demographics
B) values
C) language
D) nonverbal communications
E) all of the above
E
Which of the following is NOT a cultural factor that affects consumer behavior and marketing strategy?
A) demographics
B) language
C) exchange rates
D) values
E) nonverbal communications
C
Howard Industries is a computer manufacturer located in Laurel, MS. This company is interested in expanding internationally. Which of the following is a cultural factor that affects consumer behavior and marketing strategy that Howard Industries needs to be aware of?
A) nonverbal communications
B) natural resources
C) economic conditions
D) exchange rates
E) all of the above
A
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding cross-cultural marketing?
A) Marketing across cultural boundaries is a difficult and challenging task.
B) Most categories of American products are generally prized throughout the world.
C) There are both subtle and direct ethical issues involved in international marketing.
D) While marketing strategy is heavily influenced by cultural factors, it does not influence aspects of cultures.
E) Cultures may differ in demographics, languages, nonverbal communications, and values.
D
_____ is the complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society.
A) Reference group
B) Government
C) Culture
D) Authority
E) Gestalt
C
Sarah’s job at a major manufacturer of consumer package goods is to learn as much as possible about the knowledge, beliefs, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans in a given country in which her company intends to expand. Her job, then, is to understand a country’s _____.
A) culture
B) society
C) government
D) way of doing things
E) economic environment
A
Which of the following statements is true regarding culture?
A) Culture is a relatively simple concept.
B) Culture is acquired.
C) Culture often provides detailed prescriptions for appropriate behavior.
D) The nature of cultural influences is such that we are consciously aware of them.
E) all of the above
B
In the United States, promptness is considered a virtue. Americas are expected to be on time to an event, and they expect others to do so as well. Which aspect of culture best explains this behavior?
A) Culture is a simple concept.
B) Culture is something one is born with.
C) Culture is unique to each individual in a society.
D) Culture is time-bound.
E) Culture is acquired, that is, it is learned.
E
The boundaries that culture sets on behavior are called _____.
A) rules
B) norms
C) prescriptions
D) precepts
E) sanctions
B
_____ are rules that specify or prohibit certain behaviors in specific situations.
A) Norms
B) Precepts
C) Sanctions
D) Prescriptions
E) Values
A
Karen’s father is an executive for a major international corporation and has been transferred to various countries over the years. With each move, Karen is enrolled in a new school. Even though English is spoken in the schools she attends, there are students from all over the world whose parents have jobs similar to Karen’s father. With each new school, Karen spends the first few weeks merely observing the other students to learn which behaviors are appropriate in specific situations because she’s learned that at each school the kids behave differently. Karen is attempting to learn that student body’s specific _____ regarding behavior.
A) rules
B) guidelines
C) precepts
D) norms
E) prescriptions
D
Norms are derived from _____.
A) cultural values
B) laws
C) education
D) international protocol
E) law enforcement officials
A
_____ are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable.
A) Laws
B) Religion
C) Edicts
D) Cultural values
E) Sanctions
D
Marketers that wish to expand internationally need to understand a culture’s widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. To do this, marketers should study _____.
A) laws
B) religions
C) cultural values
D) sanctions
E) edicts
C
Violation of cultural norms results in _____, or penalties ranging from mild social disapproval to banishment from the group.
A) norms
B) sanctions
C) proclamations
D) ostracization
E) sentencing
B
Robert is fifteen years old and has recently moved to a new town, and therefore, a new high school. He was trying to get accepted by a group of kids that he wanted to be friends with. When they asked him to attend a party over the weekend, he said he’d have to ask his parents for permission. This group of students laughed at him and called him a “momma’s boy” and told him he can’t be one of them because they don’t ask parents for permission, they just do what they want. This social disapproval of Robert’s behavior is an example of a(n) _____.
A) norm
B) violation
C) sanction
D) precept
E) edict
C
Which of the following is NOT a broad form of cultural values?
A) other-oriented
B) environment-oriented
C) self-oriented
D) object-oriented
E) all of the above are broad forms of cultural values
D
_____ values reflect a society’s view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society.
A) Other-oriented
B) Environment-oriented
C) Self-oriented
D) Externally-oriented
E) Internally-oriented
A
Asian societies (i.e., Japan) value collective activity. That is, consumers look toward others for guidance in purchase decisions and do not respond favorably to promotional appeals focusing on individualism. Which category of cultural values does this represent?
A) internally-oriented
B) environment-oriented
C) other-oriented
D) self-oriented
E) group-oriented
C
_____ values prescribe a society’s relationship to its economic and technological as well as its physical environment.
A) Other-oriented
B) Self-oriented
C) Externally-oriented
D) Internally-oriented
E) Environment-oriented
E
Sam has learned that a country to which his company desires to expand places a high value on cleanliness and admires nature immensely. Which category of cultural values does this represent?
A) other-oriented
B) self-oriented
C) environment-oriented
D) externally-oriented
E) internally-oriented
C
_____ values reflect the objectives and approaches to life that the individual members of society find desirable.
A) Other-oriented
B) Self-oriented
C) Environment-oriented
D) Externally-oriented
E) Internally-oriented
B
Which of the following is an example of an other-oriented value?
A) problem solving/fatalistic
B) postponed gratification/immediate gratification
C) religious/secular
D) individual/collective
E) risk taking/security
D
Which of the following is NOT an example of an other-oriented value?
A) youth/age
B) extended/limited family
C) tradition/change
D) masculine/feminine
E) diversity/uniformity
C
Which of the following is an example of an environment-oriented value?
A) active/passive
B) tradition/change
C) extended/limited family
D) masculine/feminine
E) material/nonmaterial
B
Which of the following is NOT an example of an environment-oriented value?
A) cleanliness
B) tradition/change
C) nature
D) competitive/cooperative
E) problem solving/fatalistic
D
Which of the following is an example of a self-oriented value?
A) religious/secular
B) individual/collective
C) risk taking/security
D) tradition/change
E) diversity/uniformity
A
Which of the following country tends to value individualism over collectivism?
A) Mexico
B) India
C) United States
D) Korea
E) Japan
C
Jake is in the market for a new car. He’s looking at brands such as Mercedes, Lexus, and BMW because he feels they tell other people that he’s successful in life. This is an illustration of which value?
A) collectivism
B) youth
C) masculine
D) individualism
E) active
D
Which culture has traditionally valued the wisdom that comes with age?
A) American
B) Australian
C) British
D) European
E) Asian
E
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding youth and age?
A) Mature spokespersons would tend to be more successful in Asian cultures because they have traditionally valued the wisdom that comes with age.
B) Arab countries are becoming increasingly youth oriented.
C) American society is youth oriented.
D) Children in all countries have a significant influence on purchases.
E) China’s policy of limiting families to one child has produced a strong focus on the child.
D
What is the basis for virtually all societies?
A) family unit
B) government
C) schools
D) religion
E) workplace
A
Which of the following statements regarding the masculine/feminine value is FALSE?
A) Basically, we live in a masculine-oriented world.
B) The roles of women are changing and expanding throughout much of the world.
C) Women in Japan frequently participate in sports and exercise.
D) Many Japanese women feel guilty preparing frozen vegetables in a microwave rather than preparing fresh vegetables.
E) Traditional and modern segments with regard to this value exist simultaneously in many cultures, so marketers must adapt not only across but within cultures.
C
The United States is comprised of a culture that accepts a wide array of personal behaviors and attitudes, foods, dress, and other products and services. Thus, the United States values _____.
A) uniformity
B) collectivism
C) power
D) diversity
E) cooperation
D
_____ refers to the degree to which people accept inequality in power, authority, status, and wealth as natural or inherent in society.
A) Cooperation
B) Power distance
C) Collectivism
D) Individualism
E) Status
B
Which value relates to tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty avoidance?
A) youth/age
B) risk taking/security
C) individual/collective
D) masculine/feminine
E) diversity/uniformity
B
Which value has a strong influence on entrepreneurship and economic development as well as new-product acceptance?
A) individual/collective
B) competitive/cooperative
C) tradition/change
D) risk taking/security
E) masculine/feminine
D
_____ tend to feel they don’t have control over the outcome of events.
A) Fatalists
B) Individualists
C) Collectivists
D) Females
E) Males
A
Marie has purchased a brand that she has purchased before. However, the first time she used this brand, the product failed and she was dissatisfied. Unfortunately, the second time she purchased this brand, the same thing happened. She’s frustrated and wants her money back, but she doesn’t feel as though she has any control over this situation. She’s decided that she just needs to accept this poor quality and not expect so much from the next product she purchases. Marie can be described as a(n) ______.
A) individualist
B) fatalist
C) collectivist
D) cooperativist
E) other-oriented consumer
B
The fact that Americans are prone to engage in physical activities and to take an action-oriented approach to problems can be explained through which self-oriented value dichotomy?
A) sensual gratification/abstinence
B) competitive/cooperative
C) diversity/uniformity
D) active/passive
E) age/youth
D
What are the two types of materialism?
A) primary and secondary
B) internal and external
C) instrumental and terminal
D) masculine and feminine
E) individual and collective
C
Which type of materialism is the acquisition of things to enable one to do something?
A) primary
B) secondary
C) terminal
D) means-end
E) instrumental
E
James used his birthday money to buy a skateboard so that he can be out with his friends at the park skateboarding. Which type of materialism does this represent?
A) primary
B) secondary
C) terminal
D) instrumental
E) means-end
D
Which type of materialism is the acquisition of items for the sake of owning the item itself?
A) primary
B) secondary
C) terminal
D) instrumental
E) end state
C
John and his wife love art and travel the world to purchase artwork that is representative of a country’s culture. Which type of materialism does this represent?
A) terminal
B) instrumental
C) cultural
D) primary
E) secondary
A
In Germany, one concern retailers have is ensuring that cash drawers have enough money to make change when consumers make purchases. One company went so far as to use a computerized model that monitored the weight of the cash drawer and signaled a need for replenishment. This is such a concern because consumers typically use cash to make purchases, which differs from other countries, such as the U.S., where credit card use is more common. Which cultural value does this illustrate?
A) hard work/leisure
B) competitive/cooperative
C) material/nonmaterial
D) postponed gratification/immediate gratification
E) sensual gratification/abstinence
D
Which of the following is most closely related to verbal communications?
A) time
B) space
C) language
D) colors
E) shapes
C
Which of the following is NOT a factor that creates problems in literal translations and slang expressions?
A) differences in the direction in which written words are read
B) symbolic meanings associated with words
C) absence of some words from various languages
D) difficulty of pronouncing certain words
E) all of the above are factors that create problems in literal translations and slang expressions
A
Which of the following is a factor influencing nonverbal communications?
A) things
B) relationships
C) space
D) symbols
E) all of the above
E
Which of the following is NOT a factor influencing nonverbal communications?
A) etiquette
B) time
C) relationships
D) values
E) things
D
Nicholas is examining how people in India perceive time, space, symbols, relationships, agreements, things, and etiquette. He is interested in these factors because they influence _____.
A) language
B) demographics
C) nonverbal communications
D) values
E) laws
C
_____ are the arbitrary meanings a culture assigns actions, events, and things other than words.
A) Nonverbal communication systems
B) Values
C) Sub-cultures
D) Semiotics
E) Perspectives
A
What are the two major ways time varies between cultures?
A) primary and secondary
B) work and leisure
C) family and personal
D) monochronic and polychronic
E) perspective and interpretation
E
A culture’s overall orientation toward time is known as its _____.
A) time perspective
B) time meaning
C) uses and gratifications
D) time symbolism
E) time relationship
A
Before a marketer can successfully launch a brand in a foreign country, several nonverbal communication factors need to be understood. One of these factors is time, and international marketers must understand a culture’s overall orientation toward time. This is known as a culture’s _____.
A) time meaning
B) time interpretation
C) time perspective
D) time relationship
E) time symbolism
C
Which time perspective views time almost as a physical object believing that a person does one thing at a time?
A) linear time perspective
B) parallel time perspective
C) sequential time perspective
D) monochronic time perspective
E) polychronic time perspective
D
Ralph is very prompt. If he says he will be there at 10:00 a.m., he will be there exactly at that time. Furthermore, he will not begin another task until he is completely done with the one he is currently working on. Which time perspective does Ralph have?
A) polychronic
B) monochronic
C) linear
D) parallel
E) priority
B
A culture that tends to view time as being less discrete and less subject to scheduling, views simultaneous involvement in many activities as natural, allows activities to occur at their own pace rather than according to a predetermined timetable is adhering to a _____ time perspective.
A) polychronic
B) monochronic
C) linear
D) parallel
E) simultaneous
A
Jose is from Brazil and is currently enrolled in an MBA program at a U.S. university. He routinely comes to class 30-60 minutes late and does not turn in assignments by the deadline. One of his professors pulled him aside and asked him why he’s always late for class and turns his work in late. Jose was surprised that his professor was bothered by this as this behavior is entirely acceptable in Brazil. In fact, it’s expected. Which of the following best describes Jose’s time perspective?
A) spontaneous
B) parallel
C) monochronic
D) polychronic
E) variable
D
The nearness that others can come to you in various situations without your feeling uncomfortable is known as _____.
A) intimate space
B) personal space
C) sphere of influence
D) range of interaction
E) interaction space
B
Which of the following is considered a symbol that has varying meaning across cultures?
A) colors
B) animals
C) numbers
D) music
E) all of the above
E
In which country is the concept of guanxi, which involves personal relationships, an important consideration?
A) United States
B) Canada
C) China
D) India
E) Saudi Arabia
C
_____ represents generally accepted ways of behaving in social situations.
A) Guanxi
B) Etiquette
C) Demographics
D) Culture
E) Monochronism
B
Charmaine is a member of a junior miss organization that teaches young women how to behave in various social situations. She is learning manners, how to carry herself, and appropriate attire for specific situations. Charmaine is learning _____.
A) culture
B) time symbolism
C) symbolism
D) etiquette
E) verbal language
D
In Japan, the exchange of meishi is the most basic of social rituals in a nation where social ritual matters very much. The act of exchanging meishi is weighted with meaning. Once the social minuet is completed, the two know where they stand in relation to each other and their respective statures within the hierarchy of corporate or government bureaucracy. What is “meishi”?
A) shaking hands
B) exchange of business cards
C) introductions by a third party
D) formal invitation
E) bows
B
Which of the following is enabling the growth of a global culture?
A) mass media
B) work
C) education
D) travel
E) all of the above
E
Which age group is the closest thing to a global culture today?
A) babies
B) young children
C) teenagers
D) middle-aged adults
E) senior citizens
C
What is the largest single influence on the movement toward uniformity in the teenage market?
A) mass media
B) education
C) work
D) travel
E) religion
A
Which country is the leading movie producer and consumer in the world?
A) United States
B) Japan
C) China
D) India
E) England
D
_____ describe a population in terms of its size, structure, and distribution.
A) Economics
B) Demographics
C) Psychographics
D) Geographics
E) Lifestyles
B
Dale has to write a research report about Poland in his International Marketing class. One aspect he must learn about the country is its size, structure, and distribution. What does this represent?
A) psychographics
B) geography
C) demographics
D) economics
E) lifestyles
C
With respect to demographics, which of the following refers to the number of individuals in a society?
A) distribution
B) size
C) structure
D) dispersion
E) concentration
B
The population of the United States is almost 300 million people. With respect to demographics, this number represents _____.
A) size
B) structure
C) dispersion
D) density
E) concentration
A
With respect to demographics, which of the following describes the society in terms of age, income, education, and occupation?
A) size
B) distribution
C) concentration
D) structure
E) composition
D
_____ refers to the physical location of individuals in terms of geographic region and rural, suburban, and urban location.
A) Size
B) Structure
C) Distribution
D) Dispersion
E) Concentration
C
_____ is based on the cost of a standard market basket of products bought in each country.
A) Adjusted gross income (AGI)
B) Gross domestic product (GDP)
C) Per capita income (PCI)
D) Purchasing power parity (PPP)
E) Cross-cultural purchasing power (CPP)
D
Which country has the largest percentage of its citizens older than 60 years of age?
A) Philippines
B) Canada
C) United States
D) Japan
E) Saudi Arabia
D
Using one marketing strategy across various cultures is referred to as _____.
A) standardization
B) optimization
C) cross-culturalization
D) marketing imperialism
E) cross-fertilization
A
Which of the following is a key consideration for each geographic market that a firm is contemplating?
A) Is the geographic area homogenous or heterogeneous with respect to culture?
B) What needs can this product or a version of it fill in this culture?
C) What are the distribution, political, and legal structures for the product?
D) In what ways can we communicate about the product?
E) all of the above
E