Chapter 18 – Leadership

Are leaders born or made?
BOTH
Why are leaders both born & made?
there are some innate traits, but anyone can develop the traits
What are the 5 types of leadership power?
legitimate
reward
coercive
expert
referent
Do all leaders have power?
yes
What is legitimate power?
a leader who carries a title & has given authority
What is reward power?
the power to provide reward
What is coercive power?
the power to punish
What is expert power?
someone who has experience
what is referent power?
someone has a connection to the people, and the people want that person to lead them
What are the most effective types of leadership power?
expert & referent
What has happened to most U.S. corporations today in terms of leadership?
they are over-managed and under-led
What type of focus does management have?
short-term
What type of focus does leadership have?
long-term
Which is more important: leadership or management?
Both are important
Can people be good at both?
they can be, but normally people are better at one than the other
What is the difference between management & leadership? (LEADERSHIP)
coping with change
motivating people
setting a direction (vision & strategy)
long term orientation
transcends position
What is the difference between management & leadership? (MANAGEMENT)
oping with complexity
controlling & problem solving
planning & budgeting
short term orientation
position limited, reward & punishment
What are the 3 types of leadership according to the continuum of leader behavior?
autocratic
participative
laissez-faire
Autocratic leadership style has what type of authority?
centralized
Autocratic leadership style does what to the work method?
dictates
Autocratic leadership style makes what type of decisions?
unilateral
Autocratic leadership style has what type of participation from employees?
limited
Autocratic leadership style works for the long or short term?
short term
When does autocratic leadership work best?
crisis
Who uses the autocratic leadership method well?
military
Management is about _____ ______ ______; leadership is about ______ the _______ ________.
doing things right
doing the right things
The in class pointing north exercise showed us what?
experts frequently disagree
Does participative style of leadership involve employees in decision making?
yes
Participative style of leadership does what with authority?
delegates
How does participative style of leadership decide work methods and goals?
with participation from employees
Does participative style of leadership use feedback?
yes
What are the two subcategories of participative style of leadership?
consultative
democratic
What type of leadership style is laissez-faire?
complete freedom to make decisions & decide on work methods
What companies use laissez-faire style of leadership?
Google
Valve
Is laissez-faire style of leadership effective?
typically not
How can a company make sure laissez-faire style of leadership is effective?
hire the right people
Why didn’t trait theory last very long?
too many traits, no one could agree
hard to teach
followers can have the same traits
What are some examples of traits that leaders were found to have?
drive
honesty & integrity
intelligence
desire to lead
self-confidence
job-relevant knowledge
What type of person does the great man theory describe?
tall, dark & handsome
Why didn’t the great man theory last long?
females can be leaders too
When was trait theory prevalent?
1950s
When was behavioral styles theory prevalent?
late 1950s – early 1960s
Under what styles of leadership is quantity of work equal?
authoritarian
democratic
Under what style of leadership is quality of work and satisfaction higher?
democratic
What does the model of leadership assume?
no flexibility
What 2 types of leadership did the Ohio state study find?
initiating structure (task facilitating)
consideration (relationship building)
What is initiating structure?
extent to which a leader defines and structures his or her role and the roles of employees to attain goals
What is consideration?
extent to which a leader has job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’, ideas, and regard for their feelings?
What 2 types of leadership did the University of Michigan study find?
employee oriented leader (relationship)
production oriented leader (task)
What is an employee oriented leader?
emphasizes interpersonal relations, takes a personal interest in the needs of employees, and accepts individual differenes
What is a production oriented leader?
emphasizes technical or task aspects of a job, is concerned mainly with accomplishing tasks, and regards group members as a means to accomplishing goals
When was contingency theory prevalent?
late 1970s – early 1980s
According to contingency theory, leadership effectiveness depends on a combination of what?
leader
the led
situation
According to fiedler contingency leadership model, success depends on a proper match between what?
leader’s style of interacting with employees and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader
According to fiedler’s contingency leadership model, what is the situational criteria?
leader member relations
task structure
position power
What is the least-preferred coworker questionnaire used for?
determine whether leader is task or relationship oriented
According to fiedler’s contingency leadership model, what are the two types of leadership behavior?
task
relationship
Why is fiedler’s contingency leadership model difficult to implement?
hard to determine if a situation is favorable or unfavorable
hard to just switch leaders
According to path-goal theory what is a leader’s job?
assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and support (ie clear a way so people can get through)
Path-goal theory assumes that a leader is flexible or inflexible?
flexible
Path-goal theory assumes that a leader can adapt to situations or nah?
can adapt
According to path-goal theory, what are the environmental contingency factors?
task structure
formal authority system
work group
According to path-goal theory, what are leader behaviors?
directive
supportive
participative
achievement oriented
According to path-goal theory, what are the employee contingency factors?
locus of control
experience
perceived ability
According to path-goal theory, what are the outcomes?
performance
satisfaction
What does the leader-participation model do?
provides a sequential set of rules for determining the form and amount of participation a leader should exercise in decision making according to different types of situations
The leadership-participation model assumes that a leader can adapt to situations or nah?
can adapt
Situational leadership says that leader should adjust their leadership style in accordance with what?
the readiness of their followers
According to situational leadership, what is readiness?
follower’s ability and willingness to perform a task
What is the big difference between path-goal leadership and situational leadership?
situational leadership focusses on readiness
What do situational leadership leaders do if the followers aren’t completely & totally ready?
delegative
According to fiedler’s contingency theory what is performance dictated by?
matching inflexible leadership styles (task vs. relationship) with different scenarios
According to path-goal leadership theory, leaders are to help team members achieve goals by providing what?
direction
support
goals
What does a visionary leader do?
explain the vision to others
express the vision not just verbally but through the leader’s behavior
extend the vision to different leadership
When was transformational style leadership prevalent?
late 1980s – early 1990s
What does a transactional leader do?
guide or motivates their followers toward established goals by clarifying role and task requirements (ie gets the task DONE)
What does a transformational leader do?
inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization and are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers (ie transcend boundaries, develop people, make people better)
Who was a transformational leader?
MLK
When are transformational leaders needed?
when you will never see the end of the job, the leader has to find another way to motivate and take a lot of care in communicating the vision (Duomo, Ulm Minster, St. John the Divine — the builders never saw the finished product)
How does a transformational leader be a transformational leader?
act like a leader – integrity with authenticity
inspirational, optimistic, passionate
servant leadership
stimulate action
How are strong leader/follower relationships built?
on trust
What is one of the great tasks of a leader?
embrace the discomfort of change
What works here for a leader will work other places. Right? Why?
umm. no.
cultural differences
What type of motivation did Zander use in The Art of Possibility?
intrinsic
expectancy theory
goal setting
autonomy, mastery, purpose
What type of leadership did Zander use in The Art of Possibility?
participative
transformative
path-goal
How did Zander use intrinsic motivation in The Art of Possibility??
living into the A
How did Zander use participative leadership in The Art of Possibility??
feedback
How did Zander use transformative leadership in The Art of Possibility??
actively involved
wanted peeps to be better off
team ahead of indiv.
How did Zander use goal-path leadership in The Art of Possibility??
identify goal, achievement, supportive
What does the marshmallow test test?
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
What is EI?
ability to manage ourselves & our relationships effectively through awareness of & effective response to our emotions
Can EQ change?
yes
Can IQ change?
yes but pretty well set
How much does EI contribute to leader competencies?
80-90%
What are EQ Competencies: Personal Competence/What I See?
self awareness
What does self awareness include?
emotional self awareness
accurate self assessment
self-confidence
What are EQ Competencies: personal competence/what I do?
self management
What does self management include?
emotional self-control
trustworthiness
adoptability
achievement orientation
initiative
optimism
What are EQ Competencies: social competence/what I see?
social awareness
What does social awareness include?
empathy
organizational awareness
service orientation
What are EQ Competencies: social competence/what I do?
relationship management
What does relationship management include?
inspirational leadership
influence
developing others
change catalyst
conflict management
building bonds
teamwork/collaboration
Are men or women more socially aware?
both socially aware, men move faster to the action stage while women show more empathy
Low EQ + Low IQ =
incompetent jerks
Low EQ + High IQ
competent jerks
High EQ + Low IQ
lovable fools
High EQ + High IQ
lovable stars
People with informal leadership normally use what type of leadership?
referent
expert
How can you change your EQ?
identify weak areas
determine what behaviors you should be doing