Chapter 16: The Gilded Age

4 Causes of Industrial Growth during the Gilded Age
1. Population Growth
2. Innovative spirit – new machines and methods
3. Sympathetic government – high tariffs, immigration laws
4. New sources of power
Standard Oil Company
owned by John D. Rockefeller, the first major trust
“New South”
twin pillars of the Reconstructed southern economy were textiles and tobacco
H.J. Heinz
“To do a common thing uncommonly well brings success.”
Telephone
the most significant communication achievement in the Gilded Age
Politics during the Gilded Age
1. Civil Service Reform
2. Tariff Revision
3. Regulations of Trust
Mongrel Tariff
numerous amendments made the tariff revisions ineffective
Interstate Commerce Act
Caused by the railroad industry and high shipping costs.
McKinley Tariff
severely hurt the American economy
Haymarket Riot
Strikers in Chicago were being broken up by police when someone threw a bomb. Discredited the Knights of Labor
Pullman Strike
defied an injunction by the federal courts to stop interfering with the railroads and mail delivery.
The Grange
A farmer’s collective; their most significant goal in the 1870s was regulating the railroad
Social Darwinism
“Survival of the Fittest” meant that competition would weed out weaker businesses
Moody’s Methodology
plain speaking, simple theme of salvation and careful organization.
Franny Crosby
The most prolific writer of gospel songs and hymn in the 19th Century
Robber Barons
Industrialists who dominated America at the expense of the poor
Vertical Integration
Controlling all segments of an industry from maw material to marketing.
Panic of ’93
Severe depression that impacted America during Grover Clevelad’s 2nd term.
injunction
a court order forbidding and action
Socialism
collective or government ownership of the means of production
Free Silver party
associated with the Populist party in 1890s, wanted unlimited mining of coins in silver.
Charles Darwin
developed the theory of natural distinction
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone
Andrew Carnegie
steel giant
James Buchanan Duke
South’s tobacco baron
Thomas Alva Edison
America’s most prolific inventor
Samuel Grompers
labor unions
J.P. Morgan
financier
John D. Rockefeller
oil-refining, Standard Oil Company trust
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Shipping and railroad baron
Civil Service Commission
designed to stop the Spoils System
New Immigrants
From Eastern Europe and China; American attitude towards immigrants shifted.
Reform Darwinism
believe that man is inherently good
Materialism
The idea that wealth and buying things can make you happy; popular in the late 1800s
Chester A. Arthur
Reformed the Civil Service System
William Jennings Bryan
“Great Commoner,” free-silver crusader
Grover Cleveland
First Democratic president since the Civil War; championed commerce reform
Roscoe Conkling
corrupt New York politician who controlled the Customs House
Eugene V. Debs
radical leader of the Socialist party
James A. Garfield
reforming president who was assassinated
Benjamin Harrison
weak president, oversaw monopoly reform
William McKinley
winner of the first modern presidential campaign in 1896
Terrence V. Powderly
leader of the Knights of Labor