Chapter 16 advertising public relations and sales promotion

advertising response function
a phenomenon in which spending for advertising and sales promotion increases sales or market share up to a certain level but then produces diminishing returns
institutional advertising
a form of advertising designed to enhance a company’s image rather than promote a particular product
product advertising
a form of advertising that touts the benefits of a specific good or service
advocacy advertising
a form of advertising in which an organization expresses its views on controversial issues or responds to media attacks
pioneering advertising
a form of advertising designed to stimulate primary demand for a new product or product category
competitive advertising
a form of advertising designed to influence demand for a specific brand
comparative advertising
a form of advertising that compares two or more specifically named or shown competing brands on one or more specific attributes
Advertising campaign
a series of related advertisements focusing on a common theme, slogan, and set of advertising appeals
advertising objective
a specific communication task that a campaign should accomplish for a specified target audience during a specified period
advertising appeal
a reason for a person to buy a product
unique selling proposition
a desirable, exclusive, and believable advertising appeal selected as the theme for a campaign
medium
the channel used to convey a message to a target market
media planning
the series of decisions advertisers make regarding the selection and use of media, allowing the marketer to optimally and cost-effectively communicate the message to the target audience
cooperative advertising
an arrangement in which the manufacturer and the retailer split the costs of advertising the manufacturer’s brand
informercial
a thirty-minute or longer advertisement that looks more like a television talk show than a sales pitch
advergaming
placing advertising messages in Web-based or video games to advertise or promote a product, service, organization, or issue
media mix
the combination of media to be used for a promotional campaign
cost per contact (cost per thousand or CPM)
the cost of reaching one member of the target market
cost per click
the cost associated with a consumer clicking on a display or banner ad
reach
the number of target consumers exposed to a commercial at least once during a specific period, usually four weeks
frequency
the number of times an individuals is exposed to a given message during a specific period
audience selectivity
the ability of an advertising medium to reach a precisely defined market
media schedule
designation of the media, the specific publications or programs, and the insertion dates of advertising
continuous media schedule
a media scheduling strategy in which ads are run heavily every other month or every two weeks to achieve a greater impact with an increased frequency and reach at those times
pulsing media schedule
a media scheduling strategy that uses continuous scheduling throughout the year coupled with a flighted schedule during the best sales periods
seasonal media schedule
a media scheduling strategy that runs advertising only during times of the year when the product is most likely to be used
public relations
the element in the promotional mix that evaluates public attitudes, identifies issues that may elicit public concern, and executes programs to gain public understanding and acceptance
publicity
an effort to capture media attention, often initiated through press releases that further a corporation’s public relations plans
product placement
a public relations strategy that involves getting a product, service, or company name to appear in a movie, television show, radio program, magazine, newspaper, video game, video or audio clip, book, or commercial for another product; on the internet; or at special events
sponsorship
a public relations strategy in which a company spends money to support an issue, cause, or event that is consistent with corporate objectives, such as improving brand awareness or enhancing corporate image
crisis management
a coordinated effort to handle all the effects of unfavorable publicity or another unexpected unfavorable event
sales promotion
the marketing communication activities, other than advertising, personal selling, and public relations, in which a short-term incentive motivates consumers or members of the distribution channel to purchase a good or service immediately, either by lowering the price or by adding value
trade sales promotion
promotion activities directed to members of the marketing channel, such as wholesalers and retailers
consumer sales promotion
promotion activities targeted to the ultimate consumer market
trade allowance
a price reduction offered by manufacturers to intermediaries such as wholesalers and retailers
push money
money offered to channel intermediaries to encourage them to “push” products — that is, to encourage other members of the channel to sell the products
coupon
a certificate that entitles consumers to an immediate price reduction when the product is purchased.
rebate
a cash refund given for the purchase of a product during a specific period
premium
an extra item offered to the consumer, usually in exchange for some proof of purchase of the promoted product
loyalty marketing program
a promotional program designed to build long-term, mutually beneficial relationships between a company and its key customers
frequent buyer program
a loyalty program in which loyal consumers are rewarded for making multiple purchases of a particular good or service
sampling
a promotional program that allows the consumer the opportunity to try a product or service for free
point of purchase (P-O-P) display
a promotional display set up at the retailer’s location to build traffic, advertise the product, or induce impulse buying