Chapter 16

Term Definition
Caravel A light, fast sailing ship with a rudder and lateen sails
Henry the Navigator Son of King John l of Portugal, patron supporter of explorers
Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer who traveled to Calicut, India in 1497
Christopher Columbus Italian sailor who traveled west to reach China but discovered islands in the Caribbean instead.
Ferdinand Magellan First explorer to attempt circumnavigation of the globe. He was killed on the way but some of his sailors completed the Journey
Circumnavigate travel completely around the world
Sir Francis Drake English explorer, second man to circumnavigate the globe
Henry Hudson Dutch sailor who successfully found the Northwest passage and explored the river that is now named after him
Encomienda Spanish system in which a colonist received land and native american workers who were required to be taught Christianity
Hernan Cortes Spanish explorer and conqueror of Mexico's Aztec Empire
Conquistador Spanish term for conqueror; name for Spanish military leaders who fought against the native peoples of the Americas
Moctezuma ll Aztec emperor at the time of Cortes's conquest of Mexico
Atahualpa Ruler of Inca Empire killed by Spanish invaders led by Pizarro
Viceroys Officials who ruled large areas of Spain's American colonies in the King's name
Bartolome de Las Casas Spanish priest that criticized treatment of Native Americans suggesting slaves from Africa be used as laborers instead
Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty signed in 1493 dividing the Americans between Spain and Portugal along an imaginary Line
Columbian Exchange The exchange of plants,animals,and diseases due to contact between the peoples of Europe and the Americas
Mercantilism The European Economic policy that called for nations to gain wealth to build a strong military and expand influence
Balance of trade The amount of goods sold by a country against those purchased from other countries. selling more goods than were bought
Subsidies Grants of money given by governments for purposes such as helping people start new businesses
Capitalism Economic system in which private individuals rather than governments perform most of the economic activity
Joint-stock company A company where investors buy shares of stock receiving a portion of profits but losing their amount of investment if failed
Plantation Estates in Americas where cash crops were grown on a large scale
Triangular trade Trading network which brought goods form Europe to Africa to be traded for slaves. slaves to america,america goods to Europe
Middle Passage Name for the second leg of the Triangle, bringing captive Africans to the Americas, where they were sold as slaves
Olaudah Equiano African who wrote about the Horrific conditions Africans endured on Middle Passage voyages
African Diaspora The spread of people from African descent through Americas and western Europe as slave trade result eventually spreading culture
Francisco Pizarro Conqueror of Inca Empire in Peru for the Spanish

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