Chapter 14 Health Information Technology: An Applied Approach

application service provider (ASP)
a third party service company that delivers, manages, and remotely hosts standardized appliations software via a network through an outsourcing contract based on fxed monthly usage or transaction based pricing
application software
software designed to assist a user in performing either a singel task or multiple, related tasks
artificial intelligence
high level information technologies used in developing machines that imitate human qualitites such as learning and reasoning
assembler
a computer program that translates assembly language instructions into machine language
assembly language
a second generation computer programming language that uses simple phrases rather than the complex series of switches used in machine language
barcode
machine readable code, appearign as a series of lines, that represents specific information
bus topology
type of network design
business process
a set of related policies and procedures that are performed step by step to accomplish a business related function
business to business (B2B)
transactions between businesses for example, between a wholesaler and a retailer
business to customer (B2C)
transactions between businesses and public consumers
chief information officer
the senior manager responsible for the overall management of information resources in an organization
client
a patient who receives behavioral or mental health services
cloud computing
information systems that use the internet to access data
column/field
a basic fact within a table, such as Last_Name, First_Name, and date of birth
communications technology
computer networks in an information system
dashboard
reports of process measures to help leaders know what is currently going on so that they can plan strategically where they want to go next
data dictionary
a descriptive lsit of the data elements to be collected in an information system or database whose purpsoe is to ensure consistency of terminology
data mining
the process of extracting information from a database and then quantifying and filtering discrete, structured data
data type
a technical category of data (text, numbers, currency, date, memo, and link data) that a field in a database can contain
data warehouse
a database that makes it possible to access data from multiople databases and combine the results into a singel query and reporting interface
database
an organized collection of data, text, references, or pictures ina standardized format, typically stored ina computer system for multiple applications
database management system (DBMS)
computer software that enables eh user to create, modify, delete, and view the data in a database
decision support system (DSS)
computer based system that gathers data from a variety of sources and assists in providing structure to the data by using various analytical models and visual tools in order to facilitate and improve the ultimate outcome in decision making tasks associated with nonroutine and nonrepetitive problems
direct cutover conversion
the abrupt, immediate implementation of a new system to replace an existing system
e-health
the application of e-commerce to the healthcare industry, includign electronic data interchange and links among healthcare entities
encoder
specialty software used to facilitate the assignment of diagnostic and procedural codes according to the rules of the coding system
enterprise wide system
a computer based system that manages the data for all departments of a business
executive information systems (EIS)
an information system designed to combine financial and clinical information for use in the management of business affairs of a healthcare organization
expert system (ES)
a type of information system that supports the work of professionals engaged in teh development or evaluation of complex activities that require high level knowledge in a well defined and usually limited area
extranet
a system of conections of private Internet networks outside an organization’s firewall that uses Internet technolgoy to enable collaborative applications among enterprises
foreign key
a key attribute used to link one entity/table to another
graphical user interface (GUI)
a style of computer interface in which typed commands are replaced by images that represent tasks for exam[ple, small pictures (icons) that represent the tasks, functions, and programs performed by a software program
hardware
the machines and media used in an information system
health information exchange (HIE)
a plan in which health information is shared among providers
information systems (IS)
an automated system that uses computer hardware and software to record, manipulate, store, recover, and disseminate data (that is, a system that receives and processes input and provides output
information technology (IT)
computer technology (hardware and software) combined with telecommunications technology (data, image, and voice networks
inputs
data entered into a hospital system
integrity constraints
limits placed on the data that may be entered into a database
internet
an international network of computer servers that provides individual users with communications channels and access to software and information repositories worldwide
key field
an explanatory notation that uniquely identifies each row ina database table
knowledgte management system (KMS)
a type of system that supports the creations, organization, and dissemination of business or clincial knowledge and expertise to providers, employees, and managers throughout a healthcare enterprise
language translator
a software system that translates a program written in a particular computer language into a language that other types of computers can uinderstand
local area network (LAN)
a network that connects multiple ocmputer devices via continuous cable within a relatively small geographic area
machine language
binary codes made up of zeroes and ones that computers use directly to represent precise storage locations and operations
mainframe
a computer architecutre built with a single central processing unit to which dumb terminals and/or personal computers are connected
management information systems (MIS)
a computer based system that provides information to a healthcare organziation’s managers for use inmaking decisions that affect a variety of day to day activities
management support information system
systems that provide informatino primarily to support manager decision making
mesh topology
a network in which every device on the network is physically connected to every other device on the same network
minicomputer
a small, mainframe computer
natural language
a fifth generation computer programming language that uses human language to give people a more natural connection with computers
network
a type of information technology that connects different ocmputers and computer systems so they can share information
network protocol
a set of conventions that governs the exchange of data between hardware and/or software components ina communciations network
object
the basic component in anobject oriented database that inlcudes both data and their relationships within a single structure
object-oriented database
a type of database that uses commands that act as small, self-contained instructinal units (objects) that may be combined in various ways
object relational database
a type of database (both object oriented and relational that stores both objects and traditioanl tables
operating system
processes that are affected by what is going on around them and must adjust as the environment changes
operation support systems
an inforamtion system that facilitates teh operational management of a healthcare organization
outputs
the outcomes of inputs into the system
parallel conversion
a process whereby both an old information technology system and a new IT system run in parallel for a period of time before complegely converting to the new technology
peripheral
any hardware device connected to a computer
phased conversion
a process whereby separate elements of a new information technolgoy system are implemented over a period of time
physical topology
the method by which data flows through a company’s network
primary key
an explanatory notation that uniquely identifies each row in a database table
productivity software
a type of computer software used for word processing spread sheet, and database management applications
programming language
a set of words and symbols that allows programmers to tell the computer what operations to follow
relational database
a type of database that stores data in predefined tables made up of rows and columns
ring topology
a computer circuit/networking arrangement where each computer is connected to two others, forming a signal path in the shape of a ring
row/record
a set of columns or a collection of related data items ina table
screen prototype
a sketch of the user interface of each screen that is anticipated ina project
secondary storage
the permanent storage of data and programson disks or tapes
sequence diagram
a systems analysis tool for documenting the interaction between an actor and the information system
server
a type of computer that makes it possibel to share information resources across a network of client computers
software
a program that directs the hardware components of a computer system to perform the tasks required
specialty software
a type of applications software that performs specialized, niche functions such as encoding, or drawing and painting
star topology
an information technology structure in which each computer is connected to a central, or hub, computer, through which all information passes
strategic information systems planning
a process for setting IS priorities within an organization the process of identifying an dprioritizing IS needs based on teh organization;’s strategic goals with the intent of ensuring that all IS technology intiatives are integrated and aligned with the organization’s overall strategic plan
structured query language (SQL)
a foruth generation computer language that includes both DDL and DML components and is used to create and manipulate relational databases
supercomputer
the largest,, fastest, andmost expensive type of computer that exists today
system software
the platform on which all applications reside and function
telecommunications
voice and data communications
transaction processing system (TPS)
a computer based information system that keeps track of an organization’s business transactions through inputs and outputs
turnkey systems
a computer application that may be purchased from a vendor and installed without modification or further development by the user organziation
unified modeling language (UML)
a program initiated by the National Library of Medicine to build anintelligent, automated system that can udnersatnd biomedical concepts, words, and expressions and their interrelationships
use case diagram
a systems analysis technique used to document a software project from a user’s perspective
utility program
a software program that supports, enhances, or expands existing programs in a computer system, such as virus checking, data recovery, backup, and data compression
wide area network (WAN)
a computer network that connects devices across a large geographical area
wireless network
any type of computer network that is not connected by cables of any knid
workstation
a computer designed to accept data from multiple sources in order to assist in managing information for daily activities and to provide a convenient means of entering data as desired by the user at the point of care