Chapter 14 Disaster Management

US Department of Homeland Security
Develop and coordinate the implementing of comprehensive national strategy to secure the US from terrorist, threats or suicide
National Preparedness Guidelines
Provides coordinated federal assistance to supplement state, local, and tribal resources in response to public health and medical care needs
National Response Plan
An all-discipline and all-hazards comprehensive framework for managing domestic incidents- guide for conduction of a nationwide response that is flexible and adaptable and that links all levels of govt. with non-govt. organizations
National Incident Management System
Was established to provide a common language and structure to help those involved in disaster response to communicate together more effectively and efficiently
Public Health and Medical Preparedness and National Health Security Strategy
Enables a level of public health and medical preparedness sufficent to address a range of possible disasters
-Focuses on national goals for protecting people’s helath in the case of disaster in any setting
Bio surveillance, countermeasure distribution, mass causality care, and community resilience
What are the 4 critical components to Public health and medical preparedness and national security strategy
Prevention (Mitigation), Preparedness, Response, and Recovery
What is the Disaster management cycle (phases of disaster)
Awareness and education, organizing and participating, and advocacy
How can the nurse participate in prevention?
How to get information during disaster, create a disaster plan, complete checklist, practice and maintain your plan
What are the 4 steps to prepare for safety in a disaster
DMAT
Report to the scene or in local community clinics to provide care for victims; triage and continuing medical care to victims until they are sent out to set up hospitals
Public Health Service and Assistant Secretary for Health
Who are the two groups that can activate DMAT?
NHSS
After revision every 4 years, the goal is to reconnect public health and medical preparedness, response, and recovery strategies to ensure the nations resilience in the face of health threats or incidents with potentially negative health consequences
NHSS
The outcome is to include community strength, integrate response and recovery systems, and seamless coordination among all levels of the public health and medical system
Disaster and Mass Causality Excercise
This provides a standardized methodology and terminology for exercise design, development, conduct, evaluation, and improvement planning, and assist communities to create exercises that will make a positive difference before a real incident
Role of the Nurse in disaster preparedness
-Help initiate or update the agency’s disaster plan
-Provide educational programs and materials regarding disasters specific to the area
-Organize disaster drills
-Provide an updated record of vulnerable populations in the area
-Review individual strategies
Heroic
There is an overwhelming need for people to do whatever they can to help others survive (first- responders)
This is most often assoc. w/ response efforts
Honeymoon
Survivors may rejoice, gather and share stories, and be thankful
This is most often assoc. w/ response efforts
Dillusionment
Occurs after elapsed time and people begin to notice that additional help and reinforcement may not be immediately forthcoming; despair and exhaustion may set in
This most often is assoc. w/ recovery
Reconstruction
LONGEST PHASE
Goal is to return to a new state of normalcy
This most offten is assoc. w/ recovery
Nurses role in disaster response
-Advocate for a safe environment
-Assessment (rapid and windshield survey)
-Understand what community resources are available and how the community will work together
-First responder
-Flexibility is needed
-Begin implementing community wide disaster plan
Rapid Assesment
Determines the acute needs of community by;
-Determining the magnitude of problem
-Defining the specific health needs of the affected population
-Est. priorities and obj. for action
-Identifying existing and potential public health problems
-Evaluating the capacity of the local response, including resources and logistics
-Determining the external resources needing priority action
Triage
The process of separating causalities and allocating treatment on the basis of victims potential to survive
-life threatening injuries with high potential to survive
-systemic complication
-local injuries
Nurse in shelters
Provide assessments and referrals
Keep client records
Ensure emergency communications
Provide safe environment
Support emotions of survivors
Role of Nurse in Recovery
Teach proper hygiene and check immunizations
Be alert for environmental hazards such as live or dead animals or open electric cables
Psychological support
Help with acute/chronic illness exacerbation
Community resilience that leads the community to the new normal
Primary Prevention
Participate in developing a disaster management plan for community
Secondary Prevention
Assess disaster victims and triage care
Tertiary Prevention
Participate in home visits to uncover dangers that may cause additional injury to victims or cause other problems
Vulnerabilty
Suseptability to actual or potential stressors that may lead to an adverse event
Vulnerable populations
Groups who have an increased risk for developing adverse health outcomes:
– poor and homeless
– Pregnant adolecents
-migrant workers and immigrants
-mental ill
-substance abusers
-abused individuals
-pple with communicable diseases
– pple with HIV, HEPB, STD’s
Health disparities
refer to wide variations in health services and health status among certain population
Human captial
refers to all of strengths, knowledge, and skills that enable a person to live a productive, happy life
Disenfranchisement
aspect of vulnerability, referring to separation from mainstream society ex: homeless
Social determinants of health
-economic status
-education-environmental factors
-nutrition
-stress
-prejudice
this leads to resource constraints, poor health, and health risk
Comprehensive services
health services that focus more than one health problem or concern