Chapter 14 Databases and Database Management Systems

Database
A collection of related data that is stored in a manner enabling information to be retrieved as needed; in a relational database, a collection of related tables.
Database Management System (DBMS)
A type of software program used to create, maintain, and access databases.
Table
A collection of related records or rows.
Column
A field in database.
Record
A collection of related fields in a database. Also called a row.
Row
A collection of related fields located in a single table in a database.
Primary Key
A specific field in a database table that uniquely identifies the records in that table.
Entity
Something (such as a person, object, or event) that is important to a business or organization; typically becomes a database table in a database system for that business or organization.
Attribute
a characteristic of an entity
Data Definition
The process of describing the properties of data that is to be included in a database table.
Data Dictionary
The repository of all data definitions in a database.
Metadata
Data about data, such as the data contained in a data dictionary.
Data Integrity
The accuracy of data.
Data Validation
The process of assuring that data entered into a database is valid
Data Security
Protecting the data located in a database against destruction and misuse.
Data Privacy
Protecting the privacy of the data located in a database.
Indexed Organization
A method for organizing data on a storage medium or in a database that uses an index to specify the exact storage location.
Index
A small table containing a primary key and the location of the record belonging to that key; used to locate records in a database.
Direct organization
A method of arranging data on a storage medium that uses hashing to specify the exact storage location.
Single-User Database System
A database located on a single computer and designed to be accessed by a single user.
Multiuser Database System
A database designed to be accessed by multiple users.
Client-Server Database System
A database system where the database is located on a server and accessed by client devices.
Centralized database system
A database system in which all of the data used by the system is located on a single computer.
Distributed Database System
A database system in which the data used by the system is located on multiple computers that are connected via a network.
In-Memory Database (IMDB)
A database that stores all data in memory instead of on a hard drive.
Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)
A type of database system in which data is stored in tables related by common fields; the most widely used database model today.
Normalization
The process of evaluating and correcting the structure of a database table to minimize data redundancy.
Form
A formatted way of viewing and editing a table in a database.
Query
A request to see information from a database that matches specific criteria.
Structured Query Language (SQL)
A popular query language standard for information retrieval in relational databases.
Report
A formatted way of looking at information retrieved from a database table of the results of a query.
Object-Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS)
A type of database system in which multiple types of data are stored as objects along with their related code.
Hybrid XML/relational database
A type of database system that can store and retrieve both XML data and relational data.
Multidimensional Database (MDDB)
A type of database designed to be used with data warehousing.
Middleware
Software used to connect two otherwise separate applications, such as a Web server and a database management system.