Antecedent states
Features of the individual person that are not lasting characteristics. (Moods and Momentary Conditions)
The process mangers use to manipulate the physical retail environment to create specific mood responses in shoppers.
Communications situation
The situation in which consumers receive information.
Disposition situation
Refers to the frequent issue faced by consumers of disposing products or product packages after or before product use.
A negative emotion influenced both by the product and the situation.
Moods (Antecedent States)
Transient feeling states that are generally not tied to a specific event or object. Reflects state of mind.
Physical surroundings
Include décor, sounds, aromas, lighting, weather, and configurations of merchandise or other material surrounding the stimulus object.
Purchase situations
The situation in which consumers make their product selection.
Ritual situation
A socially defined occasion that triggers a set of unrelated behaviors that occur in a structured format and that have symbolic meaning.
Refers to atmosphere when describing a service business such as a hospital, bank, or restaurant.
Situational influence
All those factors particular to a time and place that do not follow from a knowledge of personal and stimulus (choice alternative)
attributes and that have an effect on current behavior. Consumers often behave very differently depending on situation
Social surroundings
The other individuals present during the consumption process.
Store atmosphere
The sum of all physical features of a retail environment.
Task definition
The reason the consumption activity is occurring. Major distinction between purchases for self versus gift. Consumers give gifts for many reasons; social expectations, ritualized situations, to elicit return favors.
Temporal perspective
Situational characteristics that deal with the effect of time on consumer behavior.
Usage situations
The situation in which consumers select a product based on appropriateness for a specific use.
social surroundings (example)
These are examples of____________: • Types of customers in the store • Queues and crowding • whether the consumer is likely to be known by others/recognized • whether there are high-profile people/celebrities shopping at that store • whether the product will be consumed privately or in the presence of others
temporal influences (examples)
These are examples of____________: • whether the product is seasonal • whether the product is urgently required (snack between lectures) • Time available for shopping limited/excess (the product may be an excuse for shopping) • How long the previous product lasted or was expected to last.
Task influences (examples)
These are examples of____________: • Is the product utilitarian or used as a status symbol? • Is it a gift or for oneself? • Must the product be long-lasting/tough? (e.g. an everyday watch) or decorative? (e.g. a dress watch) • Is the product intended for several uses? (e.g. a family computer for study and internet access)
Momentary Conditions (Antecedent States)
Temporary states of being (tired, ill, having extra money, being broke, etc.)

Can’t eat ice cream because teeth hurt
Can’t buy a book because the credit card was left at home
Buy more groceries because hungry before shopping

Expanded Usage situation
Strategies can produce major sales gains for established products.
Situational-Based Marketing Strategy (1)
1 Use obserbational studies, focus group discussions, depth interviews, and secondary data to discover the various usage situations that influence the consumption of the product.
Situational-Based Marketing Strategy (2)
2. Survey a larger sample of consumers to better understand and qualify how the product is used and the benefits sought in the usage situation by the market segment.
Situational-Based Marketing Strategy (3-5)
3. Construct a person-situation segmentation matrix 4. Evaluate each cell in terms of potential. 5 Develop and implement a marketing strategy for those cells that offer sufficient profit potential given your capabilities.