CHAPTER 13 GOV

As Richard Neustadt has argued, presidential power is the power to
persuade
To accomplish policy goals, what does the president have to do
president must get other people (more important people) to do things they otherwise would not do
To be effective, the president must have high developed ______________ to…
political skills to mobilize influence, manage conflict, negotiate, and fashion compromise
What is the presidency
an institution composed of the roles presidents must play, the powers at their disposal, and the large bureaucracy at their command. It is also a highly personal office.
most difficult task for president when taking oath of office?
living up to the expectations of the American people
Americans expect chief executive to ensure _____,____,_____
peace, prosperity, and security
Americans are of two minds about the presidency. Explain those two minds
1. they want to believe in a powerful president who can do good
2. americans dislike a concentration of power.
americans are ______ and ________ of authority
individualistic and skeptical
Although presidential responsibilities have increased substantially since Great Depression and WW2, there has been a corresponding increase in
presidential authority or administrative resources to meet these new expectations
American political culture’s tenets of limited government, liberty, individualism, equality, and democracy generate a distrust of…
strong leadership, authority, and the public sector in general.
Constitutional requirements for president
president must be a natural born citizen at least 35 yr old and have resided in US for at least 14 yrs
Constitution requires a ___ year term once in office
4
but what amendment limits presidents to 2 terms
22ND AMENDMENT.
Only ___ presidents have actally served two or more full terms in office
13
For more than __% of American history, the presidency has actually been occupied by an individual who was not elected to the office
10
In the 20th century, almost 1/3 of those who occupied the office were
accidental presidents
The House of reperesentatives can by majority vote impeach the president for
treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors
impeachment
political equalvialent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the constitution
Once House votes for impeachment, what happens
case goes to Senate, who tries the accused president with the chief justice of Supreme Court. By 2/3 vote, Senate may convict and remove president from office
The threshold for an impeachable offense is a _____ one
high
A lower threshold for impeachment would have the potential to turn the US into
a parliamentary system when the legislature would change the chief executive at any time
The House had impeached which 2 presidents
Andrew Johnson, 1868 on charges stemming from his disagreements with radical Republicans.

Nixon, 1974, Watergate; BUT RESIGNED BEFORE IMPEACHMENT; House Judiciary Committee voted to recommend that the full House impeach Nixon. Charged with obstructed justice, abused his power, and failed to comply with congressional subpeonas

Clinton; 1998/1999, voted 2 articles of impeachment against Clinton on party-line votes. Public opposed but 1999 Senate voted to acquit

According to Constitution, who can get impeached?
Article II, Section 4, “The President, VP an all civil officers of the US
There is agreement on at least four points regarding impeachable offenses. What are the four points?
1. impeachable behavior does not have to be a crime
2. The offense should be grave (playing a poker game, even though it may violate the law, would not be impeachable)
3. A matter of policy disagreement is not grounds for impeachment
4. Impeachment is an inherently political process
Another way constitutional amendments cover one other important problem concerning presidential term
presidential disability and succession
25th Amendment
1967; permits VP to become President if both VP and the president’s cabinet determine president is disabled. Also outlines how a recuperated president can reclaim the job
Also creates a means for selecting new VP if office becomes vacant. President nominates new VP, who assumes the office when both houses of Congress approve the nomination
the contemporary presidency _______ resembles the one the Constitution framers designed in 1787
hardly
the executive office the framers conceived had more ____, _____, and _______
more limited authority, fewer responsibilities, and much less organizational structure
Constitution says ______ about presidential power
little
The framers’ invention fit nicely within the _______ system of _______ and ___________, forcing the president to persuade officials in other branches
Madisonian; shared powers; checks and balances
What was the problem for the framers and how did they resolve it?
problem: how to preserve the balance without jeopardizing the independence of the seperate branches or impeding the lawful exercise of their authority

resolution: resolved by checking those powers they believed to be most dangers, the ones that historically had been subject to the greatest abuse (gave congress power to declare war and senate power to approve treaties), while protecting the general spheres of authority from encroachment (the executive was given a qualified veto)

today there is _____ to presidential power than the Constitution alone suggests
more
The role of the president has changed as America has increased in….
prominence on the world state and technology
Many presidents have enlarged the power of the presidency by expanding,,,,
the president’s responsibilities and political resources
(Jefferson was the first leader of a mass party, Jackson presented himself as representative of the people. Lincoln mobilized country for war. Roosevelt mobilized the public behind the policies.)
During 1950s and 60s it was fashionable for political scientists, historians, and commentators to _____ a _______ presidency.
favor; powerful
Name some reasons why by the 1970s, many people felt different about the presidency
Lyndon Johnson and the Vietnam war made people reasses the role of presidential power

Nixon and Watergate heightened public distrusts

Pentagon Papers (secret history of Vietnam war) revealed presidential duplicity

Nixon’s “enemies list” and his goal to “screw our enemies” by illegally auditing their taxes, tapping their phones, and using “surreptitious entry” (burglary) asserted that presidents considered themselves ABOVE law, possessing “inherent powers”

Nixons lawyers argued to Supreme COurt and Congress that presidency has “_____ powers” permitting presidents to order acts that otherwise would be illegal
inherant
Nixon protected himself with….
an umbrella defense of executive privilege, claiming that he did not need to provide evidence to Congress or the court
In his book THE IMPERIAL PRESIDENCY, historian Arthur Schlesinger argued that presidency had become too powerful for…
the nations own good
Whereas OLDER generation of scholars had written glowing accounts of the presidency, a NewER generation wrote about
“the Swelling of the Presidency” and “Making the Presidency Safe for Democracy”
The Nixon era was followed by the presidencies of ____ and _____ whom many critics saw as weak leaders and failures
Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter
The Iran-Contra affair kept concern about a _____ _____ alive,
tyrannical presidency
Reagan’s inability to sway Congress evoked what?
A desire on the part of some (MOSTLY CONSERVATIVE) for a stronger presidency
It is easy to forget that one of president’s most important roles is
presiding over the administration of government (less publicity; i.e appealing to public for support of policy initiatives, dealing with Congress, negotiating with foreign powers)
The Constitution exhorts the president to do what in context of administration of gov?
to “take care that the laws be faithfully executed”
Why is it hard to run the bureaucracy today?
The federal bureaucracy spends nearly $4 trillion a yr and numbers more than 4 million civilians and military employees
One of president’s resources for controlling this bureacracy
their power to appoint top-level-administrators
New presidents have about ___ high-level positions available for appointment (cabinet, subcabinet, agency heads, other noncivil service posts)
500
Since the passage of the Budgeting and Accounting Act of 1921, presidents have one more executive tool: what is it
the power to recomend agency budgets to Congress
What has led presidents pay even closer attention to appointing officials who will be responsive to president’s policies?
vastness of executive branch, complexity of public policy, and desire to accomplish their policy goals
This trend toward centralizing decision making in White House pleases and dismays whom?
pleases those who think the bureaucracy should be more responsive to elected officials.

dismay those who believe that increased presidential involvement in policymaking will undermine the “neutral competence” of professional bureaucrats by encouraging them to follow the president’s policy preferences rather than the intent of laws passed by Congress

What are executive orders
orders that carry the force of law and are used to implement statutes, treaties, and provisions to the Constitution.
Before the mid-1970s, vice presidents usually found that their main job was
waiting
Constitutional powers for Vice President
presiding over Senate and voting in case of a tie among the senators
Recent presidents have taken their vice presidents more _______, involving them in ____ and _____
seriously; policy discussions and important diplomacy
Relationship between Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale marked a ______ in the vice presidency, as Mondale became
watershed; a close advisor to the president
George W. Bush chose ________, who had extensive experience in high-level positions in the national government
Richard Cheney
What did Cheney do
he advised the president on a wide range of issues and chaired task forces dealing with major policy issues.
Cheney was also the focus of _______, especially for those opposed to______
criticism; his support for the agressive use of military power and expansive view of presidential powers.
Biden, Obamas vice, represented and served what?
represented the president abroad and served as an important liaison with members of Congress
Does the Constitution mention the cabinet?
no
Cabinet members are heads of…
the executive department
Describe the president’s cabinet
Cabinet is too large and too diverse, and its members, who are heads of executive departments, are too concerned with representing the interests of their departments for it to serve as a collective board of directors.
Major decisions remain in who’s hands?
presidents;not cabinets
Washington’s cabinet
Small; 3 secretaries (state, war, treasury) and attorney general.
How have presidents after Washington increased the size of their cabinet?
by requesting Congress to establish new executive departments
Who head executive departments and constitute the cabinet?
14 secretaries and attorney gneral
Even in making his highest-level appointments, _______ is subject to the constitutional system of ________
president; checks and balances
Next to the White House, there is a building called
EFOB, Eisenhower Executive Office Builiding
What does this building to
houses a collection of offices and organization loosely grouped into the Executive Office of the President. Congress created some of these offices by legislation, president simply organized the rest
Who established the Executive Office
President Roosevelt in 1939
The three major policymaking bodies housed in the Executive Office
National Security Council, the Council of Economic Advisers, and the Office of Management Budget along with several other units that serve the president
National Security Council (NSC)
COMMITTEE THAT LINks the president’s key foreign and military policy advisors.
Formal members: president, vp, secretaries of state and defense. Informal membership is broader.
How does the president’s special assistant for national security affairs play a major role in the NSC?
He/she runs a staff whos responsibilities include providing the president with information and policy recommendations on national security, aiding the president in national security crisis management, coordinating agency and departmental activities related to national security, and monitoring the implementation of national security policy.
Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
-Has 3 members, each appointed by president, who advise president on economic policy
The CEA prepares the annual ECONOMIC REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, which includes what?
data and analysis on the current state and future trends of the economy
What does the CEA do
prepares ECONOMIC REPORT OF PRESIDENT, and helps the president make policy on inflation, unemployment, and other economic matters
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
-Originated as the Bureau of the Budget, created in 1921
-OMB composed of a handful of political appointees and more than 600 career officials, many of whom are highly skilled professionals
OMB’s major responsibilities
to prepare the president’s budget
What do Presidents use the OMB for?
it is their clearinghouse. Presidents use the OMB to review legislative proposals from the cabinet and other executive agencies so that they can determine whether they want an agency to propose these initiatives to Congress
-they assesses the proposals’ budgetary implications and advises presidents on the proposals consistency with their overall program
Although presidents find that the Executive Office is ________ and more manageable than the cabinet department, it is still filled with people who often are performing jobs required by ___
smaller; law
One hundred yrs after Jefferson, the president’s staff grew to __
13
As recently as 1920s, the entire budget for the White House staff was no more than _____ per yr
$80,000
Who are at the top of the White House staff, in which president sees daily?
the chief of staff, congressional liaison aides, a press secretary, a national security assistant, and a few other administrative and political assistants
How many White House staff members are there?
600, many of whom the president rarely sees
Good staff people are
self-effacing, working only for the boss and shunning the limelight
1939 report of the Brownlow Committee
-served as the basis for the development of the modern White House staff,
-argued that presidential assistants should have a “passion for anonymity”
Presidents rely heavily on their staffs for
information, policy options, and analysis
Most presidents end up choosing some form of ______ organization
hierarchal; with chief of staff at the top
What does the chief of the staff do?
to see that everyone else is doing his or her job and that president’s time and interests are protected
Wheel-and-spokes system of White House management
a few presidents like Kennedy used this in which many aides have equal status and are balanced against one another in the process of decision making
Whatever the system, White House aides are central in the
policymaking process- fashioning options, negotiating agreements, writing presidential statements, controlling paperwork, molding legislative details, and generally giving the president their opinions on most matters.
Describe Obama’s deliberative decision-making style
it is more orderly than Clinton’s and more likely to challenge the premises of policy advocates than Bush’s
Who sets the tone for the White House
President
If the chief executive does not demand quality staff work, then…
the work is less likely to be done, and disaster or embarrassment might follow
Abigail Adams and Dolley Madison _____ and _____ their husbands
counseled and lobbied
What made Edit Galt Wilson the most powerful First Lady?
she virtually ran the gov when her husband Woodrow suffered a stroke in 1919.
Eleanor Roosevelt
-she wrote a nationally syndicated column and tirelessly traveled and advocated New Deal policies
-she became her husbands eyes and ears around the country and urged to adopt liberal social welfare policies
Who attained the most responsible and visable leadership position ever held by a First Lady?
hilary clinton; SHE WAS an influential adviser to president, playing an active role in selection of nominees for cabinet and judicial posts
How can presidents leave a stamp on public policy?
wield constitutional powers, build party coalitions, exploit popular support, and exercise legislative skills
T OR F the constitution says the president is the chief legislator
False
What does the Constitution simply state for the President to do in the legislative process
It simply requires that the president give a State of the Union report to Congress and instructs the president to bring other matters to Congress’s attention”from time to time”
in actuality, the president plays a _______ role in shaping the congressional agenda
major
Once Congress passes a bill, what can a president do?
-sign it, making it a law,
-veto it, sending it back to Congress with the reasons for rejecting it
-let it become law after 10 working days by not doing anything
How can Congress pass a vetoed law?
if two-thirds vote of each house votes to override the president
What is a pocket veto?
in cases where Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill, president can use a pocket veto, that is, simply let it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
Presidential veto is usually _________
effective
Congress has overridden only about __% of all vetoed bills
4
Most governors have a __________, but presidents do not
a line-item veto, allowing them to veto particular portions of a bil
The president’s lack of line-item veto helps to maintain what
the delicate balance of separate institutions sharing powers.
What are some bills that MUST be passed
appropriating funds for national defense
Presidential veto is an inherently _____ resource
negative
Presidential vetoes are more useful for _______ legislation
preventing
How can presidents pass their own legislation?
they must marshal their political resources (party leadership, public support, their own legislative skills) to obtain positive support for their programs
Every president must provide what in order to counter the natural tendency toward conflict between executive and legislative branches that is inherent in the system of checks and balances?
they must provide party leadership
For most senators and reps of the presidential party, being in the same party as the president creates a ___________ bond
psychological
Inclinations that produce support for the White House
-personal loyalties or emotional commitments to their party and their party leader
-a desire to avoid embarrassing “their” administration and thus hurting their chances for reelection, and a basic distrust of the opposition party
The parties tend to be more cohesive on issues on which
the president has ten a stand
T OR F despite the pull of party ties, all presidents experience at least some slippage in the support of their party in Congress
t
Because presidents cannot always rely on their own party members for support, what must they do?
they must be active party leaders and devote their efforts to conversion as much as to mobilization of members of their party
Primary obstacle to party unity
the lack of consensus on policies among party members, especially in DEMO party
What did Jimmy Carter, who is a democrat, remark about party loyalty?
“i learned the hard way that there was no party loyalty or discipline when a complicated or controversial issue was at stake— none”
When constituency opinion and president’s proposals conflict, who are members of Congress more likely to vote with and why?
their constituency because they rely on them for reelection.
If the president is not popular with their constituencies, congressional party members may do what?
avoid identifying too closely with the White House
The diversity of views often reflects the diversity of
constituencies represented by party members
To create goodwill with congressional party members, what does the White House do?
they provide them with many amenities, ranging from photographs with president to rides on Air Force One.
Districts represented by members of the president’s party receive ____ federal outlays
more
Why can’t the president do much to influence the results of activities like congressional nominations and elections?
members of Congress are self-recruited, gain their party’s nomination by their own efforts and nor the party’s, and provide most of the money needed for their elections
What is one way for the president to improve the chances of obtaining support in Congress?
to increase the number of fellow party members in the legislature
Presidential coattials
this occurs when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president’s party because those candidates support the president
___ races are determined by presidential coattials
few
in the 16th president election between 1952 and 2012, the party of winning presidential candidate averaged __ seats (out of 435) per election in the House and only __ seat in the Senate, where the opposition party actually gained seats in ___ of the elections
8;1;7
midterm elections
elections held between presidential elections
recent presidents have campaigned actively for their party’s candidates in midterm elections T OR F
T
There is evidence that presidents reap benefits from whom?
members in midterm elections who win
Nevertheless, the president’s party typically ____ seats
loses
When is the president’s party especially likely to lose seats in the House?
when the president’s approval rating is low and when the party gained a lot of seats in the previous election
Democrats suffered large losses in the 2010 midterm elections, including __ seats in Senate and ___ in the House
6;63
T OR F the president’s party often lacks a majority in one or both houses
true
Since 1953, there have been __ years in which Republican presidents faced a Democratic House of Representatives and ___ yrs in which they faced a Democratic Senate
30Wh;22
What does the president do when he is lacking majorities and/or dependable party support?
he usually has to solicit help from the opposition party. This is often futile endeavor since the opposition is not fertile ground for seeking support
one of the president’s most important resources for leading cONGRESS is _____
public support
Presidents with low approval rating in the polls find it difficult to
influence Congress
Members of Congress in Washington closely watch TWO indicators of public support for the president
approval in the polls and mandates in presidential election
Representatives and senators may also use the president’s standing in the polls as an indicator of presidential ability to…
mobilize public opinion against presidential opponents
Public approval also makes the president’s other leadership resources more ________
efficacious
If the president is high in the public’s esteem, the president’s party is more likely to be_______, the public is more _____, and legislative skills become more _____
responsive, easily moved, effective.
what is the political resource that has the most potential to turn stalemate between president and COngress into a situation supportive of the president’s legislative proposals
public approval
Widespread public support gives the president…
leeway and weakens resistance to presidential policies. It provides a cover for members of Congress to cast votes to which their constituents might otherwise object.
Lack of public support does what?
it narrows the range in which presidential policies receive the benefit of the doubt and strengthens the resolve of the president’s opponents
low ratings in polls also creates what
incentives to attack the president, further eroding a weakened position
______ is a difficult force for the White House to combat
Disillusionment
No matter how high approval levels climb, a significant portion of Congress will still oppose certain presidential policies T OR F
T
public approval gives the president _______, not command
leverage;command
Presidents’ leadership resources _______ allow them to dominate congress
do not
What is an electoral mandate
the perception that the voters strongly support the president and his policies. It accords added legitimacy and credibility to the newly elected president’s proposals
Concerns for both ________ and _________ encourage members of Congress to……
representation; political survival; support new presidents if they feel the people have spoken
1932 election dominant question
after Roosevelts win, HOW gov should act to fight Depression rather than WHETHER it should act at all
1964 election essential question
Following Johnson’s win, HOW many social programs to pass and how much to increase spending
How were the tables turned in 1981
Ronald Reagan’s victory placed a stigma on big gov and exalted the unregulated marketplace and large defense efforts
Merely winning an election provides president with a mandate T OR F
F
Presidential legislative skills include
bargaining, making personal appeals, consulting with Congress, setting priorities, exploiting “honeymoon” periods, and structuring congressional votes
of thos legislative skills, which receives perhaps the most attention from commentators on the presidency
bargaining
Reagan’s budget director David Stockman recalled that…
“the last 10 or 20 percent of the votes needed for a majority of both houses on the 1981 tax cut had to be bought”
Bargaining concessions for members of Congress
special breaks for oil-lease holders, real estate tax shelters, generous loopholes that virtually eliminated the corporate income tax
Such bargaining occurs ____ often and plays ____ critical role in the creation of presidential coalitions in Congress than one might think
less;less
On controversial issues on which bargaining may be useful, what does the president start with?
he starts with a sizable core of party supporters. To this, he might add opposition party members who provide support on ideological or policy grounds as well as those who provide support because of relevant constituency interests or strong public approval. this is his coalition
when does the president need to bargain
only if this coalition of his does not provide a majority (2/3 on treaties and 1/3 on avoiding veto overrides)
It is wise for the new president to be ready to send legislation to the Hill early during the 1st yr in office in order to…
exploit the “honeymoon” atmosphere that typically characterizes this period
Which president decided to send legislation to Hill early?
Johnson, Reagan, and George W. Bush
honeymoon period
the president’s first months in office, a time when Congress, the press, and the public are more inclined than usual to support presidential initiatives
What is the goal for presidents by establishing priorities among legislative proposals
to set the Congress’s agenda
Why is setting priorities important for presidents
-if presidents are unable to focus the attention of Congress on their priority programs, these programs become lost in the complex and overloaded in the legislative process
-it is important because presidents and their staffs can lobby effectively for only a few bills at a time.
-it allows them to distribute their political capital evenly to different issues so their precious captial wont be wasted
_______ is the nation’s key agenda builder; what the ______ wants strongly influences the parameters of Washington debate.
the president; administration
John Kingdon’s careful study of Washington agenda found that
no other single actor in the political system has quite the capability of the president to set agendas
tHERE are no limits to what the president can do T OR F
F
What stable factors does presidential legislative skills as well as presidential public support have to compete with that affect voting in Congress?
party, ideology, personal views, and commitments on specific policies, constituency interests and so on.
After accounting for the status of the president’s party in coNGRESS AND STANDING with public, studies found that presidents…
known for their legislative skills (Lyndon johnson) are no more successful in winning votes or obtaining congressional support than those considered less adept at dealing with Congress (jIMMY Carter)
The presidents’ legislative skills are not at the core of presidential leadership of Congress t or f
t
What can and cant skilled president do
they CANNOT reshape the contours of the political landscape and create opportunities for change

they CAN recognize favorable configurations of political forces and effectively exploit them to embark on major shifts of public policy

The most important role as well as the heaviest burden of the president?
their responsibility for national security
President has the leading role in American ….
defense and foreign policy, often termed as national security policy
Name some of the several dimensions to the president’s national security responsibilities
negotiating with other nations,
commanding armed forces,
waging war,
managing crises,
obtaining necessary support in Congress
The president has sole power to negotiate…
treaties with other nations, although Constitution requires Senate to approve them by 2/3 vote
What does it mean when senators add “reservations” to the treaties they ratify
they alter the treaty in the process
President and Executive Agreements
-presidents also negotiate executive agreements with heads of foreign govs
-do not require Senate ratification (but is president supposed to report it to Congress and they may implement legislation passed by majorities of each house
-Most executive agreements are routine and deal with noncontroversial subjects (food deliveries or customs enforcement)
Theodore Roosevelt won Nobel Peace Prize for his role in
settling war between Japan and Russia (showing that presidential diplomacy involves more than negotiating on behalf of US)
Jimmy Carter’s greatest achievements was forging a peace treaty between
Egypt and Isreal. For 13 days, he mediated negoiations between them at his presidential retreat, Camp David
As leader of the ______ _______, president must try to lead America’s allies on matters of both _____ and _____
Wester world; economics; defense
Why did the framers make the president the commander in chief of the armed forces
they wanted civilian control of the military
When Constitution was written, US did not have a _____ army
large standing or permanent
Today, the president is commander in chief of about _____ uniformed men and women
1.4 million
Never more than a few steps from the president is “the football”. what is that
a briefcase with the codes needed to unleash nuclear war.
No issue of executive-legislative relations generates more controversy than the dispute over _______
war powers
Although charged by Constitution with _____ and _____, Congress long ago accepted that presidents make _____, ____, and _____
declaring war, voting on the military budget

short-term military commitments of troops, aircraft, or naval vessels

In recent decades, presidents have paid even ____ attention to constitutional details
less
War Powers Resolution
1973; Congress passed it over Nixon’s veto.
-a reaction to disillusionment about American fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia
-it’s law intended to give Congress a greater voice in the introduction of American troops into hostilities.
-requires presidents to consult with Congress, whenever possible, before using military force, and it mandated the withdrawal of forces after 60 days unless Congress declared war or granted extension
What have all presidents serving since 1973 been saying about the War Powers Resolution
they say it is an unconstitutional infringement on their powers as commander in chief
On the other hand, if the president could only send troops into combat after a congressional resolution authorizing the use of for, it is possible that we would be _____ likely to go to war
less
There is reason to believe that the Supreme Court would consider the law’s use of the legislative veto of War Powers Resolution to be..
violation of the doctrine of separation of powers
The president’s roles as chief diplomat and also commander in chief are related to another presidential responsibility… what is that?
crisis management
Most crises occur in realm of
foreign policy
Early in American history there were _____ immediate crises.. why?
fewer; Communication took a long time to reach Washington. Official’s decisions often took weeks or months to reach those who were to implement them
As a result of Congress moving slowly, being large, decentralized and composed of generalists, the president, who can come to quick and consisten decisions, confine info to a small group, carefully oversee developments and call one experts in executive branch, has become more
prominent in handling crises
Congress has a central constitutional role in making ____ ___ ______, although this role is often misunderstood
national security policy
Despite the constitutional role of Congress, president is the
driving force behind national security policy, providing energy and direction
Congress is well organized to do what?
deliberate openly on the discrete components of policy, but it is not well designed to take lead on national security matters
Congress’s role has typically been…
overseeing the executive rather than initiating policy
Congress frequently originates proposals for ____ ____, but is less involved in national security policy
domestic policy
Why do members of Congress typically prefer to encourage, criticize, or support the president rather than to initiate their own national security policy?
the nature of national security issues may make the failure to integrate (combine) the elements of policy more costly than in domestic policy
If leadership occurs, it is usually centered in
the White House
Although Congress is typically reactive on national security policy, it can constrain president, even on the
initiation, scope, and duration of military actions
Because presidents are rarely in a position to command others to comply with their wishes, they must rely on ___________
persuasion
Ceremonial activities give presidents
an important symbolic aura and a great deal of favorable press coverage, contributing to their efforts to build public support
Name some ceramonial and international activities of president
ceramonial: tossing out first basemall of the season, lighting White House Christmas tree, meeting an extraordinary boy or Girl scot

internat: meeting foreign heads of state, receiving ambassadors’ credentials, and making global goodwill tours

White house aims much of the energy it devotes to public relations at increasing…
the president’s public approval
Because of what does the press, members of Congress, and others in Washington political community closely monitor the president’s standing in the polls?
Because the connection between public support and presidential influence
Most presidents seem to most popular when? Who is an exception to this?
they seem to be most popular when they 1st enter office, later on eroding. BILL CLINTON, enjoyed higher approval in his 2nd term than first
President approval is a product of many factors T OR F
T
What provides the basic underpinning of approval or disapproval and mediates the impact of other factors affecting presidential approval?
political party identification
What is the honeymoon period?
a fleeting phenomenon, with the public affording new occupants of the White House only a short grace period before they begin their inevitable descent in the polls
Contrary to conventional wisdom, citizens seem to focus on what rather than what?
focus on president’s efforts and stands on issues

rather than on personality (popularity) or how presidential policies affect them (pocketbook)

According to John Mueller, what are rally events?
events related to international relations, directly involve the US and particulary the president, and are specific dramatic and sharply focued
“the supply of popular support” rests on what?
on opinion dynamics over which president may exert little direct control over

ONE STUDENT OF PUBLIC PRESIDENCY SAID

Commentators refer to the presidency as a “bully pulpit.” What is that?
Presidents can persuade or even mobilize the public to support their policies if they are skilled communicators. President’s use of prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse American public
Despite bully pulpit aid and politicians’ speaking experience, presidential speeches designed to lead public opinion have been ______
unimpressive
Evan Parker-Stephen suggests that when people encounter political information, they must balance two conflicting roles:
as “updaters” who want to perceive the world objectively and as “biased reasoners” who distort info to make it consistent with their political preferences
When do people’s salient partisan identities get hightened?
during the long presidential campaigns and in era of extreme partisan polarization
The more salient people’s partisan identities, the more
difficult it is for the president to get his message through
Sometimes merely changing public opinion is not sufficient T OR F
T
The president wants the public to communicate its views directly to
Congress
Why is the president rarely able to mobilize the public
because doing so involves overcoming formidable barriers. It entails the double burden of obtaining both opinion support and political action from a generally inattentive and apathetic public. Plus it is risky; if president tries to mobilize and fails, the lack of response speaks clearly to members of Congress
The _________________ provides people with most of what they know about chief executives and their policies
mass media
Whom is the principal intermediary between president and the public? and why
the press; they interpret and analyze presidential activies, even the president’s direct appeals to public
Presidents and press tend to be in ____ a lot. They are likely to be ______
conflict:adversaries
Because of the IMPORTANCE of the press to the president,
the White House monitors the media closely. Some presidents have set up special tvs so they cn watch the news on all networks at once. Plus they go to large measures to encourage the media to project a positive image of the president’s activities and policies
About ____ of high-level White House staff are directly involved in media relations and policy of one type or another, and ____ staff are involved at some time in trying to influence the media’s portrayal of the president
1/3; most
Who is the person who often deals directly with the press the most? What do they do?
the president’s press secretary; they serve as a conduit of info from the White House to press. They conduct daily press briefings, giving prepared announcements and answering questions. They and their staff arrange private interviews with White House officials, photo opportunities, and travel arrangements for reporters when president leaves Washington
What is the best-known direct interaction between president and press?
the formal presidential press conference
Most of the news coverage of the White House come under the heading “______ _____.” in other words, what does this mean
body watch; reporters focus on the most visible layer of the president’s personal and official activities and provide the public with step-by-step accounts. They focus on what presidents are going to do, how their actions will affect others, how they view policies and others, and how they present themselves, rather than in the substance of policies or the fundamental processes operating in the executive branch
______ is the most politically charged issue in relations between president and press
bias
large number of studies have concluded that the news media (including tv networks and newspapers), are ____ _____ _____ toward particular party, person, or ideology, as measured in the amount or favorability of coverage
not biased systematically
To conclude that most news outlets contain little explicitly partisan or ideological bias is not to argue that the news does not…
distort reality in its coverage of the president
The news tends to be ____, _____, and ______, all of which means that it provides….
superficial, oversimplified, and overblown’ the public with distorted view of presidential activities, statements, policies, and options.
Press frames the news in ______, which does what?
frames, it simplifies complex issues and events and provides continuity of persons, institutions, and issues. Once established, the press tends to maintain them in subsequent stories. Themes emphasize some info at the expense of other info, often determining what is covered and the context in which it is presented.
News coverage of presidency often emphasizes the ______
negative
Clinton received a ratio of negative to positive comments on tv of about ___ to ___
2:1
advantages in dealing with press
the press typically portrays the president with an aura of dignity and treats him with deference
Scott, who was George W. Bush’s press secretary, concluded that media bias was…
not a problem and that bias had minimal impact on the way the public was informed
“The Bush administration had no difficulty in getting our messages across to American people.”
From the time the Constitution was written, there has been a fear that the presidency would…
degenerate into a monarchy or dictatorship
concerns over presidential power are generally closely related to ____ ____
policy views
Those who oppose president’s policies are most likely to be
concerned about TOO MUCH presidential power
Aside from _____, there is little prospect that the presidency will be a threat to democracy
The possiility of a president’s acting outside the law and the Constitution
What system created the checks and balances system?
Madisonian system
Checks and balances is evident in an era characterized by…
divided gov— a gov in which president is on party and a majority in each house of Congress is of other party
It is true that ____ potentially important legislation fails to pass under divided gov than when one party controls both presidency and Congress
more
Describe how major policy change IS possible under divided government
one author found that major policy change is just as likely to occur when the parties share control as when one party holds both presidency and majority in each house
Supporting an increased role for government is not ______, however; leadership can move in many _____
inherent; directions
The presidents following Lyndon Johnson for the most part have championed….
constraints on gov and limits on spendings, especially in domestic policy
It is often said that Americans are _______ conservative and ______ liberal, If so,
ideologically; operationally; If so, it has been their will to choose a president who reflected their ideology and a Congress that represented their appetite for public service
It has been the ______ more often than _____ who has said “no” to gov growth.
President; Congress