Employee organizations whose main goal is to represent members in employee-management negotiations of job-related issues.
An organization of skilled specialists in a particular craft or trade.
Knights of Labor
First national labor union (formed in 1869).
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
An organization of craft unions that championed fundamental labor issues (formed in 1886).
Labor unions of unskilled or semiskilled workers in mass production industries.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
Union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the AFL in 1935 and rejoined in 1955.
A type of contract that required employees to agree to NOT join a union; prohibited by the Norris-LaGuardia Act in 1932.
The process whereby union and management representatives form a labor-management agreement, or contract, for workers.
The formal process by which a union is recognized by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) as the bargaining agent for a group of employees.
The process by which workers take away a union’s right to represent them.
Negotiated labor-management agreement (labor contract)
Agreement that sets the tone and clarified the terms under which management and labor agree to function over a period of time.
Union security clause
Provision in a negotiated labor-management agreement that stipulated that employees who benefit from a union must either officially join or at least pay dues to the union.
Closed shop agreement
Clause in a labor-management agreement that specified workers had to be members of a union before being hired (was outlawed by the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947).
Union shop agreement
Clause in a labor-management agreement that says workers don’t have to be members of a union to be hired, but must agree to join the union within a specific time period.
Agency shop agreement
Clause in a labor-management agreement that says employers may hire nonunion workers; employees are not required to join the union but must pay a union fee.
Legislation that gives workers the right, under an open shop agreement, to join or not to join a union if it is present.
Open shop agreement
Agreement in right-to-work states that gives workers the right to join or not join a union, if one exists in their workplace.
A charge by employees that management is not abiding by the terms of the negotiated labor-management agreement.
Union officials who work permanently in an organization and represent employee interests on a daily basis.
The range of options between initial and final offers that each party will consider before negotiations dissolve or reach an impasse.
The use of a third party, called a mediator, who encourages both sides in a dispute to continue negotiating and often makes suggestions for resolving the dispute.
An agreement to bring in an impartial third party (a single arbitrator or a panel of arbitrators) to render a binding decision in a labor dispute.
A union strategy in which workers refuse to go to work; the purpose is to further workers’ objectives after an impasse in collective bargaining.
When workers in a critical industry return to their jobs while the union and management continue negotiations.
When a union encourages both its members and the general public not to buy the products of a firm involved in a labor dispute.
An attempt by labor to convince others to stop doing business with a firm that is the subject of a primary boycott; prohibited by the Taft-Hartley Act.
An attempt by management to put pressure on unions by temporarily closing the business.
A court order directing someone to do something or to refrain from doing something.
Workers hired to do the jobs of striking workers until the labor dispute is resolved.
Concessions made by union members to management; gains from labor negotiations are given back to management to help employers remain competitive and thereby save jobs.
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors or other verbal or physical conduct (verbal or physical) of a sexual nature that creates a hostile work environment.