Chapter 12: Leadership and Followership

Learning Objectives
Discuss the differences between leadership and management and between leaders and managers.

Explain the role of trait theory in describing leaders.

Describe the role of foundational behavioral research in the development of leadership theories.

Describe and compare the four contingency theories of leadership.

Discuss the recent developments in leadership theory of leader-member exchange and inspirational leadership.

Discuss how issues of emotional intelligence, trust, gender, and servant leadership are informing today’s leadership models.

Define followership and identify different types of followers.

Synthesize historical leadership research into key guidelines for leaders.

Leadership
The process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the work environment
Formal Leadership
The officially sanctioned leadership based on the authority of a formal position
Informal Leadership
The unofficial leadership accorded to a person by other members of the organization
Learning Outcome 1
Discuss the differences between leadership and management and between leaders and management
Management
-Planning and Budgeting
-Organizing and Staffing
-Controlling and problem solving
Leadership
-Setting a direction for the organization
-Aligning people with that direction
-Motivating people
Managers
Advocate stability and the status quo
Leaders
Agitate for change and new approaches
Manager

Attitudes towards goals

Has an
-impersonal
-passive
-functional attitude

-believes goals rise out of necessity and reality

Leader

Attitude towards goal

Has a
-personal
-active attitude

-believes goals arise from desire and imagination

Manager

Conceptions of work

Views work as an enabling process that combines people, ideas and things

Seeks moderate risk through coordination and balance

Leader

Conceptions of work

Looks for fresh approaches to old problems

Seeks high risk positions, especially with high payoffs

Manager

Relationships with others

Avoids solitary work activity, preferring to work with others

Avoids close, intense relationships

Avoids conflicts

Leader

Relationship with others

Is comfortable in solitary work activity

Encourages close, intense working relationships

Is not conflict averse

Manager

Sense of self

-Is once born
-Makes straight-forward life adjustment
-Accepts life as it is
Leader

Sense of self

-Is twice born
-Engages in a struggle for a sense of order in life
-questions life
Learning Outcome 2
Explain the role of trait theory in describing leaders
Early Trait Theories
Distinguished leaders by:

-Physical attributes
-Personality characteristics
-Abilities (speech fluency, social skills, insight)

Learning Outcome 3
Describe the role of foundational behavioral research in the development of leadership theories
Lewin On Leadership
Autocratic Style
Democratic Style
Laissez-Faire Style
Autocratic Style
The leader uses strong, directive actions to control the rules, regulations, activities and relationships in the work environment
Democratic Style
The leader uses interaction and collaboration with followers to direct the work and work environment
Lassiez-Faire Style
The leader has a hands-off approach
Ohio State Studies
Initiating Structure
Consideration
Initiating Structure
Leader behavior aimed at defining the organizing work relationships and roles;

establishing clear patters of organization, communication and ways of getting things done

Consideration
Leader behavior aimed at nurturing friendly, warm working relationships, as well as encouraging mutual trust and interpersonal respect within the work unit
Michigan Studies
Production-Oriented Leader
Employee-Oriented Leader
Production-Oriented Leader
-Focus- getting things done
-Uses direct, close supervision
-Many written or unwritten rules
Employee-Oriented Leader
-Focus-relationships
-Less direct, close supervision
-Fewer written or unwritten rules
-Displays concern for people and their needs
Leadership Grid
An approach to understanding a leader’s or manager’s concern for results (production) and concern for people
Organization Man
(5,5)
Middle of the road leader
Authority Compliance Manager
(9,1)
A leader who emphasizes efficient production
Country Club Manager
(1,9)
A leader who has great concern for people and little concern for production

Attempts to avoid conflict and seeks to be well liked

Team Manager
(9,9)
A leader who builds a highly productive team of committed people
Impoverished Manager
(1,1)
A leader who exerts just enough effort to get by
Paternalistic “father knows best” Manager
A leader who promises reward and threatens punishment
Opportunistic “what’s in it for me” Manager
A leader whose style aims to maximize self-benefit
Learning Outcome 4
Describe and compare the four contingency theories of leadership
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
Fit between leader’s need structure and favorableness of leader’s situation determine the team’s effectiveness

-Least Preferred Coworker(LPC)
-High LPC
-Low LPC

Least Preferred Coworker
The single person a leader has least preferred to work with
High LPC
Leaders who describe Least Preferred Coworker in positive terms
Low LPC
Leaders who describe Least Preferred Coworker in negative terms
Situation Favorableness
Three elements to leader’s situation:

Task structure
Position Power
Leader-member relations

Favorable leadership situation
Structured task for the work group
Strong position power for leader
Good leader-member relations
Unfavorable leadership situation
Unstructured task
Weak position power for leader
Poor leader-member relations
Leadership Effectiveness in the Contingency Theory
Slide 24
Vroom-Yetton-Jago Normative Decision Model
Decide
Consult Individuality
Consult Group
Facilitate
Delegate

**Manager should use the decision method most appropriate for a given situation**

Learning Outcome 5
Discuss the recent developments in leadership theory of leader-member exchange and inspirational leadership
Leader-Member Exchange
Leaders form two groups of followers:

-In-groups
-Out-groups

In-Groups
-Members similar to leader
-Given greater responsibilities, rewards, attention
-Within leader’s inner circle of communication
-High job satisfaction and organizational commitment, low turnover
-Stress from added responsibilities
Out-Groups
-Managed by formal rules and policies
-Given less attention, fewer rewards
-Outside the leader’s communication circle
-More likely to retaliate against the organization
-Stress from being left out of communication network
Inspirational Leadership
Transformational Leadership
Charismatic Leadership
Authentic Leadership
Transformational Leadership
Transformational leaders inspire and excite followers to high level of performance

Climbing a mountain

Charismatic Leadership
Charismatic leaders use the force of personal abilities and talents to handle profound effects on followers

Superhero

Authentic Leadership
Have a conscious and well-developed sense of values and act in ways that are consistent to their value systems
Learning Outcome 6
Discuss how issues of emotional intelligence, trust, gender and servant leadership are informing today’s leadership models
Emerging Issues in Leadership
Emotional INtelligence
Trust
Gender and Leadership
Servant Leadership
Abusive Supervision
Beyond the Book
The success may lie in a female management style – thinking long term, avoiding risk and emphasizing collaboration and consensus.
Learning Outcome 7
Define followership and identify different types of followers
Followership
Traditionally, followers viewed as passive

More contemporary views cast follower as active role
with potential for leadership

Five Types of Followers
Alienated
Effective
Survivors
Sheep
Yes
Learning Outcome 8
Synthesize historical leadership research into key guidelines for leaders
Guidelines for Leadership
-Leaders and org should appreciate the unique attributes, predispositions and talents of each leader

-Leaders should be chosen who challenge the organizational style without destroying it.

-Participative, considerate leadership enhances the health and well-being of followers.

-Different leadership situations call for different leadership talents and behaviors.

-Good leaders are likely to be good followers.