chapter 11 PSYCH

what lies at the core of the concept of personality
the consistency across situations and distinctiveness, the behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation.
personality refers to an individual’s
unique collection of consistent behavioral traits
what happens in factor analysis
correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables. reducing a huge list of personality traits to just 16 basic dimensions.
who reduced a huge list of personality traits to just 16 basic dimensions?
Raymond Cattell.
who came up with the five factor model of personality
McCrae and Costa.
what are the Big Five personality traits
extraversion
neuroticism
openness to experience
agreeableness
conscientiousness
occupational attainment is predicted by
extraversion and conscientiousness.
what are psychodynamic theories
include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces.
id
the primitive instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle. in charge of the raw biological urges.
what does id operate by
the pleasure principle which demands immediate gratification of its urges.
primary process thinking
primitive illogical irrational and fantasy oriented.
the ego
the decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality of principle. considers social realities society’s norms, etiquette, rules and customs.
the go is guided by
the reality principle which seeks to delay tratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outles and situations can be found. tames the desires of the id.
ego engages in what kind of thinking
secondary process thinking which is relatively rational realistic and oritented toward problem solving. strives to avoid negative consequences from society.
the superego
the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong.
what age does the superego emerge out of the ego
around 3 to 5 years in age. superego can become irrationally demanding in its strive for moral perfection causing alot of guilt.
the conscious
consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time.
the preconscious
contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved. your middle name, what happened yesterday etc.
the unconscious
contains thoughts, memories, and desirs that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior. forgotten traumas etc.
the ego and supergo operate
at all three levels of awareness.
the id is always
completely unconscious.
why do we have internal battles
the id wants to gratify its urges immediately but the norms of civilized society frequently dictate otherwise. people’s lives are dominated by conflict.
unconscious battles can produce
anxiety.
rationalization
creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior.
the most basic and widely used defnese mechanism is
repression.
repression is
keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious. motivated forgetting.
projection
attributing one’s own thoughts feelings or motives to another. ex: if you feel guilty about your own sexual desires, you attribute that sexual tension to the other person and make them want to seduce you.
displacement
diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target. kicking your dog when your boss gets mad at you.
reaction formation
behaving in a way that’ sexactly the opposite of one’s true feelings. homosexuals who bash on homosexuality. usually very exaggerated.
regression
a reversion oto immature patterns of behavior. when adults are very insecure they respond with childish boasting and bragging.
identification
is bolstering self esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group. ex> young people identifying with rock stars, or old people joining clubs. only when comes from insecurity.
Freud said
the basic foundation of an individual’s personality has been laid down by the tender age of 5.
psychosexual stages
are developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality.
fixation involves a failure
to move forward from one stage to another as expected.
fixation can be caused by
excessive gratification of needs or excessive frustration.
oral stage
fixation at this stage could form basis for obsessive eating or smoking later in life (among many other things).
anal stage
ages 2-3 anus (expelling or retaining feces) key tasks: toilet training.
phallif stage ages
4-5
what stage does the oedipal complex emerge from
phallig stage. boys develop erotically tinged preference for their mother and feel hostility towards their father.
which stage do girls develop penis envy
phallic stage.
latency and genital stages
ages 5-puberty. sexual energy is channled towards peers.
jung encouraged his followers to
develop their own theoretical views.
jung’s 2 layers of the unconscious
personal unconscious and
collective unconscious.
collective unconscious
contains the “whole spiritual heritage of mankind’s evolution, born anew in the brain structure of every individual.” deeper level than freud’s.
what are ancestral memories called
archetypes.
archetypes
are emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning. symbols art religion
who came up with individual psychology
alfred adler.
according to adler the foremost source of human motivation is a striving for
superiority. not necessarily to dominance or high status.
adler saw striving for superiority
as a universal drive to adapt improve onselef and master life’s challanges. inferiority is there for a reason in order to motivate people and aquire new skills!
adler maintained that striving for supierority is prime goal of life
rather than physical gratification.
compensaion
involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by devloping one’s abilities.
parental pampering or parental neglect can cause
an inferiority complex.
how can psychodynamic perspectives not be valid
poor testability
inadequate evidence . doctors see what they expect to see.
sexism.
who are 3 behaviorist psychologists
B.F. skinner,
albert bandura,
and walter mischel.
skinner argued for
determinism, asserting that behavior is fully determined by environmental stimuli.
how can skinner’s theory be proved?
through response tendencies that people have acquired thorugh experience. they may change in the future as a result of new experience but they’re enduring enough to create a certain degree of consistency.
skinner viewed personality as
a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations.
skinner believed that most human responses are shaped by
operant conditioning. reinforcement, punishemtn and extinction determine people’s patterns of responding.
bandura is one of the several behaviorists who have added
a cognitive flavor to behaviorism.
modified brand of behaviorism that includes cognitive theory is called
social learning theory.
bandura
social cognitive theory.
bandura believes personality is largely shaped through learning
however he contends that conditioning is not mechanical but humans pick and choose what to process to maximize favorable outcomes.
bandura’s foremost theoretical contribution has been
observation learning
observational learning
occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others. one person can learn by another’s mistakes. model is a person whose behavior is observed by another.
what has great impact on personality development according to behaviorists
models.
self efficacy
refers to one’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes.
mischel and the person-situation controversy was
recognition that both the person and the situation are important determinants of behavior.
moment to moment situational factors dominate most behavior, but when gathered over time they are more ocnsistent.
humanistic theory emerged in 1950’s as a blacklash against
behavioral and psychodynamic theories. arguments that they were dehumanizing. too deterministc.
who are humanistic theorists
carl rogers
abraham maslow
humanists
assume that people can rise above their primitive animal heritage and people are conscious and rational beings not dominated by unconscious irrational conflics.
humanstic theorists maintain that a person’s subjective view of the world
is more important than objective reality.
rogers called his approach
a person centered theory.
self concept
a collection of bleiefs about one’s own nature unique qualities and typical behavior.
what is the gap between selc concept and reality called
incongruence. the degree of disparity between one’s self concept and one’s actual experience.
unconditonal love fosters what and conditional love fosters what
congruence and incongruence. if kids believe affection is condition they will distort more and more of their experiences in order to feel worth of acceptance.
according to rogers expernces that threaten people’s personal views
are the principal cause of troublesome anxiety.
self actualized persons
are people with exceptionally healthy personalities marked by continued personal growth.
what is eysenck’s theory
personality is determined to a large extent by a person’s genes.
genetics have led throists to conclude
that parents don’t matter that they wield very ltitle influence over how their children develop.
david buss
argued that the big five personality traits stand out as imporant dimensions of personality across a variety of cultures because those traits have had significant adaptive implications.
evolutionary approach to personality
personality has biological basis because natural selection has favored certain traits over the course of human history. contribute to reproductive fitness.
neuroticism could have
fueled competitiveness and avoidance of dangers.
criticism of biological perspectives
no comprehensive biological theory of personality and based too much on heritaility estimates that vary depending on samping and statistical procedures.
one of the chief goals of terror management thoery is to explain
why people need self esteem.
according to terror management theory culture does what
provides way to view the world that solve the fear of the realization of our own mortality. provide us with relief. gives people a sense of order and meaning.
according to terror management theory what is self esteem
a sense of personal worth that depends on one’s confidence in the validity of one’s cultural worldview and belief that one is living up to the standards prescribed by that worldview. self esteem serves a terror management function.
self esteem functions as an
anxiety buffer.
mortality salience
knowing that one day you are going to die. leads people to work harder at defending their cultural worldview.
manipulations of mortality salience lead to
harsh treatment for moral transgressions, elevated respect for cultural icons and increased prejudice.
conscpicuous consumption happens because
people give efforts to assert that one is special and therefore more than just an animal fated to die and decay.
this humanistic theorist if famous for his hierarchy of needs and his work on self-acutalizing persons
abraham maslow
this humanist called his approach a person cnetered theory. argued that an incongruent self concept tends to promote anxiety and defensive behavior.
carl rogers
this influential behaviorist explained personality development in terms of operant conditioning, especially the process of reinforcement.
b.f. skinner
this behaviorist sparked a robust debate about the importance of the person as opposed to the situation in determining behavior.
walter mischel
this theorist views personality structure as a hierarchy of traits and argues that personality is heavily influenced by heredity
hans eysenck
theorist clashed with freud and argud that the foremost source of human motivation is a striving for superiority
alfred adler.
this theorist’s social cognitive theory emphasizes observational learning and self efficacy
albert bandura.
strengths and weaknesses of self report inventories
1. deliberate deception
2. social desirability bias
3. resopnse sets.
ask participants to respond to vague ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subject’s needs feelings and personality traits.
projective tests.
Rorschach test and TAT are
projective tests.
MMPI
widely used inventory that measures pathological aspects of personality
16PF
assesses 16 dimensions of the normal personality.
NEO
personality inventory measures the Big Five personality traits.
outcome knowledge
shapes how people reconstruct their thinking about the event.
what is hindsight bias
the tendency to mold one’s interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out.
how to cure hindsight bias
using only information that was known at the time the decision was being made.