Chapter 11, Part 2

Artificial Selection
Breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits. Organisms with the desired traits are artificially mated with organisms with similar desired traits.
Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)
Organism produced by isolating a gene in one organism and putting it into another organism.
Golden rice
Seeds from rice plants that have had a gene for the production of Vitamin A inserted into them.
Bt corn
Corn that produces a natural insecticide in its leaves because it comes from corn plants that have had Bacillus Thuringiensis, a natural soy bacterium, injected.
Roundup ready gene
Gene that makes plants resistant to the herbicide Roundup. This allows farmers to spray Roundup on fields without killing the crop.
Buffer zone
Area around crops of GMOs to ensure that they are not able to breed with their wild relatives. This helps preserve the natural species.
Sorghum
Cereal grass grown for its sweet juice extract.
Greenbug resistance
Specific pest resistance that is found in a natural variety of sorghum.
Conventional agriculture
Conventional agriculture
Agriculture that uses mechanization and standardization instead of traditional techniques.
Shifting agriculture
Agricultural method where land is cleared and used until there are no more nutrients left in the soil.
Slash and burn agriculture
Technique used in Shifting Agriculture where existing trees and vegetation are cut down, placed in piles, and burned.
Oxidizing carbon
Converting carbon into oxide compounds CO and CO2 by burning process. Increases atmospheric CO2 concentrations.
Desertification
Process of good, productive land turning into desert or unproductive land because of climate change or practices that destroy the land.
Nomadc grazing
Feeding herds of animals by moving them (often over long distances) to seasonally productive feeding grounds.
Sustainable agriculture
Agriculture that fulfills the need for food and fiber while enhancing the quality of the soil, minimizing the use of nonrenewable resources, and allowing economic viability for the farmer.
Intercropping
Agricultural method in which two or more crop species are planted in the same field at the same time to promote a synergistic interaction.
Crop rotation
Agricultural technique in which crop species in a field are alternated from season to season.
Agroforestry
Agricultural technique in which trees and vegetables are intercropped.
Contour plowing
Contour plowing
Agricultural technique in which plowing and harvesting are done parallel to the topographic contours of the land.
No till agriculture
Agricultural method in which farmers do not turn the soil between seasons, used as a means of reducing erosion.
Integrated pest management
Agricultural practice that uses a variety of techniques designed to minimize pesticide inputs.
Organic agriculture
Production of crops with the goal of improving the soil each year without the use of synthetic pesticides or fertilizers.
Concentrated animal feeding
Feeding animals in a large indoor or outdoor structure where each animal is allocated a very small space.
High density farming
Raising a large population of animals in a confined space to maximize output.
Free range
Meat-producing animals are allowed to wander free instead of being confined in a small space for their entire life.
Fishery collapse
The decline of a fish population by 90% or more.
Aquaculture
The farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish, and seaweeds by constructing an aquatic ecosystem by stocking the organism, feeding them, and protecting them from diseases and predators.
Bycatch
The unintentional catch of nontarget species while fishing.
Overharvest
To harvest excessively or in an unsustainable manner.
Purse seine nets
Purse seine nets
Nets used to capture high-value fish such as tuna. They can capture up to 3,000 adult tuna at a time – almost a million pounds of fish.
Genetically Modified Organisms
Benefits include increased crop yield and quality, less pesticide use, increased profits.
Genetically Modified Organisms
Concerns include human safety, negative effects on biodiversity, regulation of crops.
High density farming
Concerns include waste disposal of manure, runoff into waterways, and antibiotics given to animals contributing to antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms that can affect humans.
High density farming
Considered cruel by some because animals are confined during all or part of their life cycle.
Sustainable agriculture
Crop rotation, contour plowing, no-till agriculture, intercropping, and agroforest are all practices of this type of agriculture.
Sustainable agriculture
Often requires more labor than industrial agriculture, so is more expensive in places where labor costs are high.
No-till agriculture
In this type of farming, the intact roots hold the soil in place, which reduces both wind and water erosion.
No-till agriculture
This downside of this type of farming is that it usually requires the use of herbicides before and sometimes after planting.
Integrated pest management
Techniques for this type of crop managment include crop rotation, intercropping, use of pest-resistant crop varieties, creating habitats for predators of pests, and limited use of pesticides.
Integrated pest management
This type of crop management requires farmers to be trained to inspect their fields carefully to determine whether a pesticide is necessary.
Aquaculture
Almost all of the catfish and trout eaten in the United States are produced by this method.
Aquaculture
One risk of this method of producing fish is that wastewater from the facility may contain bacteria, viruses, and pests than can infect wild fish and shellfish populations.