Chapter 11 APES Midterm

There are seven species of sea turtles. All are in danger of becoming extinct, mostly due to ____.

a
impacts from giant asteroids

b
human activities that occurred over 100 years ago

c
female sea turtles not laying large enough clutches of eggs

d
lower sea levels in the past 100 years

e
human impacts on their environment taking place during the last 100 years

b
The excessive turbidity, or cloudiness, of Lake Wingra in Madison, Wisconsin, was caused by the introduction of which of the following?

a
common carp

b
Nile perch

c
water lilies

d
marine seaweed

e
catfish

a
Ocean pollution from plastic items dumped from ships and garbage barges, and left as litter on beaches, kills up to ____ sea birds each year.

a
1,000

b
25,000

c
100,000

d
500,000

e
1,000,000

e
Projected climate change threatens aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services, partly by contributing to ____.

a
decreased salinity of water

b
an increase in carbon storage in oceans

c
UV radiation from ozone depletion

d
rising sea levels

e
spread of tropical diseases

d
Warmer and more acidic ocean water is stressing ____, the foundation of the marine food web.

a
phytoplankton

b
sea turtles

c
cichlids

d
sharks

e
algae

a
A concentration of a particular wild aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water is called a ____.

a
fish farm

b
fish habitat

c
fish bloom

d
fishery

e
fish hatchery

d
A fishing method called, ____ fishing, is used to catch surface-dwelling species such as tuna, mackerel, anchovies, and herring, which tend to feed in schools near the surface or in shallow areas.

a
rod and reel

b
purse-seine

c
drift-net

d
trawler

e
long-line

b
Which of the following is defined as the area of ocean needed to sustain the fish consumption of an average person, a nation, or the world?

a
fishprint

b
ocean resource footprint

c
ocean view

d
footprint

e
resource demand

a
All the nations of the world are overfishing the world’s global oceans, taking _____ more than the sustainable yield of fish.

a
10%

b
28%

c
42%

d
57%

e
75%

d
When it appears that it is no longer profitable to continue fishing as a result of overfishing, the fish populations are said to be ____.

a
locally extinct

b
ecologically extinct

c
economically extinct

d
biologically extinct

e
commercially extinct

e
One result of the increasingly efficient global hunt for fish is that larger individuals of commercially valuable wild species are ____.

a
migrating to new ocean areas

b
becoming scarce

c
feeding on new food sources

d
becoming more prevalent

e
becoming smaller in size

b
As large species of fish are overfished, the fishing industry is shifting to smaller marine species and about 90% of this catch is converted to fishmeal and fish oil, most of which is ____.

a
fed to farmed fish

b
used for cooking

c
discarded

d
made into nutrient supplements

e
fed to cattle

a
In recent years, jellyfish blooms have ____.

a
been declining in numbers

b
benefited ecotourism

c
been degraded by commercial fishing

d
been rising in numbers

e
altered ocean current flows

d
Which term describes species that play crucial roles in helping to keep their ecosystems functioning?

a
foundational

b
keystone

c
primary

d
critical

e
cornerstone

b
For every shark that injures or kills a person, people kill about ____ sharks.

a
150

b
1.2 million

c
125,000

d
15

e
2,000

b
Scientists are now cataloging species in the deepest part of the ocean by using ____.

a
spotter planes

b
global satellite positioning equipment

c
man driven deep-sea vehicles

d
sonar fish-finding devices

e
remotely operated deep-sea vehicles

e
HIPPCO is an acronym that aids in remembering ____.

a
the organizations working toward saving threatened species

b
African animals that are threatened with extinction

c
the names of extinct species

d
threats to the world’s biodiversity

e
the names of international treaties dealing with endangered species

d
Sea-bottom habitats are being threatened by ____.

a
coastal development

b
little human activity because they are inaccessible

c
shrimp farming

d
the largest predator fish in the sea

e
dredging operations and trawlers

e
Ocean acidification is defined as rising levels of acid in ocean waters due to the ocean’s absorption of ____ from the atmosphere.

a
CO2 (carbon dioxide)

b
CO3 (carbonate ions)

c
H2CO3 (carbonic acid)

d
CaCO3 (calcium carbonate)

e
N2O (nitrous oxide)

a
Bioinvaders can be blamed for ____ of all fish extinctions in the U.S. since 1900 and have caused huge economic losses.

a
1/4

b
1/3

c
1/2

d
2/3

e
3/4

d
One invader that particularly worries scientists and fishers on the east coast of North America is a species of ____ native to the western Pacific Ocean.

a
lobster

b
cichlids

c
lionfish

d
phytoplankton

e
sea bass

c
In 2010, the UN indicated that what percentage of the world’s people are living along or near the ocean, mostly in large coastal cities?

a
20%

b
80%

c
60%

d
50%

e
40%

b
The first letter “P” in the acronym HIPPCO stands for ____.

a
pesticides

b
perennial

c
pressure

d
population

e
petroleum

d
a
in the sunlit region of the ocean

b
under the polar ice caps

c
in the open ocean

d
in the surface region of the ocean

e
in coral reefs

e
What percentage of the world’s oceans is fully protected, and closed to fishing and other harmful human activities?

a
0.8%

b
3.5%

c
7.2%

d
5.0%

e
11%

a
Many marine scientists suggest we need at least ____% of the world’s oceans fully protected as marine reserves.

a
60

b
40

c
30

d
20

e
10

c
In 2011, an international panel of scientists concluded that because of a combination of habitat loss, overfishing, pollution, and ocean acidification, marine life is poised to enter a new period of ____.

a
mass repopulation

b
endangerment

c
conservation

d
resurgence

e
mass extinction

e
What is CITES?

a
a treaty banning deep-sea exploration

b
a treaty banning trade in endangered species

c
a treaty banning gill nets

d
a treaty banning barrier island development

e
a treaty banning overfishing

b
By law, a country’s offshore fishing zone extends to ____ kilometers from its shores.

a
80

b
100

c
260

d
300

e
370

e
Which U.S. state is leading the way in establishing marine protected areas where fishing will be banned or strictly limited?

a
Oregon

b
Florida

c
California

d
Washington

e
Texas

c
Many scientists and policy makers are suggesting an ecosystem approach to sustain aquatic systems. The cornerstone of this would include establishment of fully protected ____.

a
high seas zones

b
wildlife reserves

c
continental shelf areas

d
benthic zones

e
marine reserves

e
Some coastal fishing communities have developed allotment and enforcement systems for controlling fish catches in which each fisher gets a share of the total allowable catch. These systems help sustain fisheries and jobs and are called ____.

a
community-based management system

b
total allowable catch system

c
cap and trade system

d
co-management systems

e
catch-share systems

e
To encourage more responsible fishing practices, an important component of sustaining aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services is bottom-up pressure from consumers demanding ____.

a
sustainable seafood

b
fishing subsidies

c
fishing only along coasts

d
seafood caught by trawlers

e
seafood raised on fish farms

a
The traditional approach to estimating fish populations is the ____.

a
commercial sustained yield

b
potential sustained yield

c
maximum sustained yield

d
optimum sustained yield

e
minimum sustained yield

c
The newer approach to estimating fish populations, one which takes into account interactions between species and has more room for error, is ____.

a
maximum sustained yield

b
commercial sustained yield

c
potential sustained yield

d
optimum sustained yield

e
minimum sustained yield

d
Despite their ecological value, the United States has lost more than ____ of its coastal and inland wetlands since 1900.

a
10%

b
25%

c
50%

d
75%

e
90%

c
The purpose of mitigation banking is to ____.

a
encourage sustainable fishing practices

b
allow for development of wetland for a fee

c
require the restoration of all wetlands

d
allow the destruction of wetlands if an equal wetland is created elsewhere

e
trade wetlands for forest lands

d
What species is one of the biggest threats to the Great Lakes?

a
cod

b
cutthroat trout

c
sea lamprey

d
wild salmon

e
jellyfish

c
The Columbia River dam system has benefited many people, but it has ____.

a
inhibited reproductive cycles of common carp

b
sharply reduced populations of herring

c
sharply increased populations of invasive salmon

d
inhibited migration patterns of trout

e
sharply reduced populations of wild salmon

e
In order to protect a stream or lake from excessive inputs of nutrients and pollutants, we must protect its ____.

a
banks

b
biodiversity

c
watershed

d
riparian zones

e
tributaries

c
In 1968, the U.S. Congress passed the ____ to establish protection of rivers with outstanding wildlife, geological, scenic, recreational, historical, or cultural values.

a
National Rivers and Wetlands Act

b
National Rivers of Interest Act

c
National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act

d
Federal Freshwater Act

e
Federal Scenic Waterways Act

c
Which activity is least likely to be involved with the sustainable management of freshwater fisheries?

a
facilitating the introduction of commercially important nonnative species

b
supporting populations of commercial and sport fish species

c
preventing over fishing

d
controlling predators and parasites

e
building and stocking reservoirs and farm ponds

a
What is a major threat to the biodiversity and ecological function of the Great Lakes?

a
invasive nonnative species

b
tourism

c
ocean sea level rise

d
acidification

e
saltwater intrusion

a
What is not one of the ecosystem services of rivers?

a
provide habitats for wildlife

b
deliver nutrient to seas to help sustain fisheries

c
renew and renourish wetlands

d
remove silt that accumulates in deltas

e
purify water

d
Biologist E. O. Wilson proposed a list of priorities for protecting aquatic biodiversity. What is one of those priorities?

a
Decrease government subsidies for commercial fishing.

b
Stop the melting of the arctic ice.

c
Find ways to move people living in or near aquatic ecosystems elsewhere.

d
Identify and preserve the world’s aquatic biodiversity hot spots.

e
Stop ocean and freshwater acidification.

d
There is growing evidence that the current harmful effects of human activities on aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services could be reversed over the next ____.

a
two years

b
ten years

c
two decades

d
fifty years

e
two centuries

c
The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan has several goals. Which goal below is not one of them?

a
Buy 240 square kilometers of farmland and allow it to become marsh.

b
Build a series of massive dams to stop water leaving the Everglades.

c
Remove 400 kilometers of canals and levees south of Lake Okeechobee.

d
Create 18 large reservoirs and underground storage areas.

e
Restore the curving flow of the Kissimmee River.

b
In 1947, the U.S. government established the Everglades National Park to help preserve the wilderness of this system. Why didn’t this protection effort work?

a
Massive water distribution and land development north of the Everglades.

b
Tourism damaged the natural ecosystem.

c
Populations of native vertebrates left the Everglades, causing the food web to collapse.

d
Much of the original Everglades was paved over.

e
Human population increased in areas surrounding the Everglades.

a
Protecting ____ and restoring them in areas where they have been destroyed are important ways to reduce the impacts of rising sea levels and storm surges, because these can slow storm-driven waves.

a
coral reefs

b
tidal basins

c
mangrove forests

d
algal blooms

e
estuaries

c
Sylvia Earle is leading a campaign called Mission Blue to finance research and to ignite public support for a global network of marine protected areas, which she dubs ____.

a
megareserves

b
hope spots

c
hotspots

d
oceanic protected areas (OPAs)

e
underwater wilderness

b
Biodiversity is higher in the surface region of the ocean rather than in the bottom region of the ocean.

True
False

true
Climate scientists estimate the oceans may rise as high as five feet by the year 2100.

True
False

true
Research indicates modern industrial fishing has been a key factor in the depletion of up to 80% of the populations of some wild fish species in only 10-15 years.

True
False

true
Marine Protected Areas are the only areas in the ocean where fish are totally protected from human activities.

True
False

false
Approximately 99.2% of the world’s oceans are not effectively protected from harmful human activities.

True
False

true
Oceans will become more acidic as a result of the absorption of carbon dioxide.

True
False

true
Governments around the world give a total of more than $30 billion per year in subsidies to fishers, which partly contributes to overfishing.

True
False

true
Creating and restoring wetlands has become a profitable business.

True
False

true
About 10% of the wading birds in the Everglades National Park have vanished.

True
False

false
Salmon populations in the Columbia River have increased by 35% since the dam system was put in place.

True
False

false
Strategies for protecting the earth’s precious biodiversity will not be implemented without bottom-up political pressure from individual citizens and groups.

True
False

true