A mental image of a possible and desirable future state of the organization
Behavior that provides guidance, support, and corrective feedback for day to day activities.
Behavior that gives purpose and meaning to organizations, envisioning and creating a positive future.
The ability to influence others
the right, or the authority, to tell others what to do.
influences others because she controls valued rewards.
personal characteristics that appeal to others.
control over punishments; people comply to avoid those punishments.
certain expertise or knowledge.
A leadership perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share.
A leadership perspective that attempts to identify what good leaders do—that is, what behaviors they exhibit.
Task performance behaviors
Actions taken to ensure that the work group or organization reaches its goals.
Group maintenance behaviors
Actions taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members, develop and maintain harmonious work relationships, and preserve social stability
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory
Highlights the importance of leader behaviors not just toward the group as a whole but toward individuals on a personal basis.
A form of leadership in which the leader makes decisions on his or her own and then announces those decisions to the group.
A form of leadership in which the leader solicits input from subordinates.
Leadership philosophy characterized by an absence of managerial decision making.
Leadership perspective proposing that universally important traits and behaviors do not exist, and that effective leadership behavior varies from situation to situation.
Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership effectiveness
A situational approach to leadership postulating that effectiveness depends on the personal style of the leader and the degree to which the situation gives the leader power, control, and influence over the situation.
concerns how leaders influence subordinates’ perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward attainment of those goals.
A situational model that focuses on the participative dimension of leadership.
Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory
A life-cycle theory of leadership postulating that a manager should consider an employee’s psychological and job maturity before deciding whether task performance or maintenance behaviors are more important.
the level of the employee’s skills and technical knowledge relative to the task being performed.
An employee’s self-confidence and self-respect.
Substitutes for leadership
Factors in the workplace that can exert the same influence on employees as leaders would provide
A person who is dominant, self-confident, convinced of the moral righteousness of his beliefs, and able to arouse a sense of excitement and adventure in followers.
A leader who motivates people to transcend their personal interests for the good of the group.
Leaders who manage through transactions, using their legitimate, reward, and coercive powers to give commands and exchange rewards for services rendered.
Level 5 leadership
A combination of strong professional will (determination) humility that builds enduring greatness.
A style in which the leader is true to himself or herself while leading.
Leaders who talk about positive change but allow their self-interest to take precedence over followers’ needs.
A leader who serves others’ needs while strengthening the organization.
A leader who bridges conflicting value systems or different cultures.
Rotating leadership, in which people rotate through the leadership role based on which person has the most relevant skills at a particular time.
Style in which colleagues at the same hierarchical level are invited to collaborate and facilitate joint problem solving.