Chapter 1 What Is Organizational Behavior

c. Managers need to understand human behavior if they are to be effective.
Over the past two decades, business schools have added required courses on people skills to many of their curricula. Why have they done this?
a. Managers no longer need technical skills in subjects such as economics and accounting to succeed.
b. There is an increased emphasis in controlling employee behavior in the workplace.
c. Managers need to understand human behavior if they are to be effective.
d. These skills enable managers to effectively lead human resources departments.
e. A manager with good people skills can help create a pleasant workplace.
c. Technical skills are necessary, but insufficient alone for success.
Which of the following is most likely to be a belief held by a successful manager?
a. Technical knowledge is all that is needed for success.
b. It is not essential to have sound interpersonal skills.
c. Technical skills are necessary, but insufficient alone for success.
d. Effectiveness is not impacted by human behavior.
e. Technical skills do not influence efficiency.
e. an elementary school
Which of the following would not be considered an organization?
a. a church
b. a university
c. a military unit
d. all adults in a given community
e. an elementary school
e. organization
Which of the following is best defined as a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals?
a. party
b. unit
c. team
d. community
e. organization
e. an IT technician who enables communication between all of a company’s employees
Which of the following is least likely to be considered a manager?
a. an administrator in charge of fund-raising activities in a non-profit organization
b. a lieutenant leading an infantry platoon
c. a doctor who acts as head of the physiotherapy department at a public hospital
d. the mayor of a large city
e. an IT technician who enables communication between all of a company’s employees
c. staffing
Which of the following is not one of the four primary management functions?
a. controlling
b. planning
c. staffing
d. organizing
e. leading
b. planning
Which of a manager’s primary roles requires the manager to define an organization’s goals, establish an overall strategy for achieving these goals and develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities?
a. controlling
b. planning
c. staffing
d. coordinating
e. leading
d. organizing
Determining how tasks are to be grouped is part of which management function?
a. planning
b. leading
c. controlling
d. organizing
e. contemplating
c. decisional
Mintzberg concluded that managers perform 10 different, highly interrelated roles. Which of the following is one of the broad categories into which these roles could be grouped?
a. intrapersonal
b. institutional
c. decisional
d. affective
e. reflective
d. figurehead role
As a manager, one of Joe’s duties is to present awards to outstanding employees within his department. Which Mintzberg managerial role is Joe acting in when he does this?
a. leadership role
b. liaison role
c. monitor role
d. figurehead role
e. spokesperson role
b. leader
According to Mintzberg, one of management’s interpersonal roles is _____.
a. spokesperson
b. leader
c. negotiator
d. monitor
e. devil’s advocate
b. entrepreneur
According to Mintzberg, when a manager searches the organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change, the manager is acting in which role?
a. negotiator
b. entrepreneur
c. monitor
d. resource allocator
e. reflective analyst
b. technical, human, and conceptual
Robert Katz identified three essential skills that managers need to have in order to reach their goals. What are these skills?
a. technical, decisional and interpersonal
b. technical, human, and conceptual
c. interpersonal, informational and decisional
d. conceptual, communication and networking
e. human, informational and communication
a. technical
A manager is valued by her colleagues for her ability to perform effective break-even analysis on upcoming ventures. In this case, her colleagues value her for competencies that fall within which of Katz’s essential management skills categories?
a. technical
b. communication
c. human
d. conceptual
e. education
c. apply specialized knowledge or expertise
According to Katz, technical skills encompass the ability to _____.
a. analyze and diagnose complex situations
b. exchange information and control complex situations
c. apply specialized knowledge or expertise
d. initiate and oversee complex projects
e. communicate effectively with others
a. decision making.
Which one of the following would not be considered a human skill in Katz’s structure?
a. decision making.
b. communicating
c. resolving conflicts
d. working as part of a team
e. listening to others
d. conceptual
According to Katz, when managers have the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations, they possess _____ skills.
a. technical
b. leadership
c. problem-solving
d. conceptual
e. reactive
b. decision making
According to Fred Luthans and his associates, which of the following is considered a part of traditional management?
a. disciplining
b. decision making
c. exchanging routine information
d. acquiring resources
e. investing
d. networking
Which of Luthans’ managerial activities involves socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders?
a. traditional management
b. communicating
c. human resource management
d. networking
e. investing
d. by the speed of their promotion
How does Luthans define a manager’s success?
a. by the quantity and quality of their performance
b. by the satisfaction and commitment of their employees
c. by the rate and quantity of pay raises
d. by the speed of their promotion
e. by their scores on a 360-degree feedback analysis
c. networking
According to Luthans’ research, successful managers spent more of their time on _____ than on any other activity.
a. traditional management
b. human resource management
c. networking
d. communicating
e. hiring and firing
e. They are generally more effective managers.
What did a study of U.S. managers indicate about those managers who seek information from colleagues and employees?
a. They are rapidly promoted.
b. They are generally more popular.
c. They are less efficient as leaders.
d. They are generally given fewer promotions, raises and other rewards.
e. They are generally more effective managers.
a. people skills
While the Functions, Roles, Skills, and Activities approaches to management all differ, they all recognize that effective and successful managers must develop which of the following?
a. people skills
b. technical skills
c. efficiency
d. entrepreneurialism
e. ability to network
c. a decrease in sales due to growing foreign competition
An OB study would be least likely to be used to focus on which of the following problems?
a. an increase in absenteeism at a certain company
b. a fall in productivity in one shift of a manufacturing plant
c. a decrease in sales due to growing foreign competition
d. an increase in theft by employees at a retail store
e. excessive turnover in volunteer workers at a non-profit organization
e. individuals, groups, and structure
What are the three primary determinants of behavior that organizational behavior focuses upon?
a. profit structure, organizational complexity, job satisfaction
b. individuals, profit structure, and job satisfaction
c. individuals, groups, and job satisfaction
d. groups, structure, and profit structure
e. individuals, groups, and structure
c. Organizational behavior
______ is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
a. Organizational development
b. Human Resources Management
c. Organizational behavior
d. People management
e. Corporate strategy
d. resource allocation
Which of the following is not a core topic of organizational behavior?
a. motivation
b. attitude development
c. conflict
d. resource allocation
e. work design
c. systematic inquiry
In order to predict human behavior, it is best to supplement your intuitive opinions with information derived in what fashion?
a. common sense
b. direct observation
c. systematic inquiry
d. speculation
e. organizational theory
b. Human behavior is not random.
Which of the following is a reason that the study of organizational behavior is useful?
a. Human behavior does not vary a great deal between individuals and situations.
b. Human behavior is not random.
c. Human behavior is not consistent.
d. Human behavior is rarely predictable.
e. Human behavior is often not sensible.
e. evidence based management
What approach involves managers centering their decisions on the best available scientific data?
a. intuition
b. organizational behavioral studies
c. substantive evidence approach
d. preconceived notions
e. evidence based management
d. predict human behavior
What do the fundamental consistencies underlying the behavior of all individuals enable researchers to do?
a. observe human behavior
b. systematize human behavior
c. research human behavior
d. predict human behavior
e. detect human behavior
d. systematic
Analyzing relationships, determining causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence all constitute aspects of _____ study.
a. organizational
b. intuitive
c. theoretical
d. systematic
e. case-based
b. use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience
What do the authors of the textbook advise?
a. disregard your intuition because it’s usually wrong and will lead to incorrect assumptions
b. use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience
c. rely on research since it is almost always right and researchers don’t make mistakes
d. make predictions of individuals’ behaviors based on others’ actions
e. don’t trust preconceived notions unless you have substantive evidence to back them up
a. physics
Organizational behavior is constructed from all of the following disciplines except _____.
a. physics
b. psychology
c. anthropology
d. sociology
e. social psychology
b. the level of the individual
Psychology’s major contributions to the field of organizational behavior have been primarily at what level of analysis?
a. the level of the group
b. the level of the individual
c. the level of the organization
d. the level of the culture
e. the level of interacting groups
c. psychology
Which behavioral science discipline is most focused on understanding individual behavior?
a. sociology
b. social psychology
c. psychology
d. anthropology
e. organizational behavior
b. psychology
The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals is known as _____.
a. psychiatry
b. psychology
c. sociology
d. political science
e. organizational behavior
d. Social psychology
_____ blends concepts from psychology and sociology.
a. Corporate strategy
b. Anthropology
c. Political science.
d. Social psychology
e. Archaeology
d. social psychology
The science that focuses on the influence people have on one another is _____.
a. psychology
b. anthropology
c. political science
d. social psychology
e. archaeology
d. social psychologists
Group behavior, power, and conflict are central areas of study for _____.
a. archaeologists
b. sociologists
c. anthropologists
d. social psychologists
e. operations analysts
b. Sociology
_____ focuses on the study of people in relation to their social environment.
a. Psychology
b. Sociology
c. Corporate strategy
d. Political science
e. Operations management
b. sociologists
Significant contributions to OB in the study of group behavior in organizations have been made by _____.
a. psychologists
b. sociologists
c. anthropologists
d. political scientists
e. operations analysts
e. sociology
Which field of study has contributed to OB through its research on organizational culture and formal organization theory and structure?
a. psychology
b. operations management
c. corporate strategy
d. political science
e. sociology
a. anthropology
Which of the following fields has most helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior among people in different countries?
a. anthropology
b. psychology
c. political science
d. operations research
e. psycholinguistics
a. anthropology
The subject of organizational culture has been most influenced by which behavioral science discipline?
a. anthropology
b. psychology
c. social psychology
d. political science
e. corporate strategy
b. They can be used to predict human behavior only if the situation is clearly specified.
Which of the following statements best describes the current status of Observational Behavior concepts?
a. They are based on universal truths.
b. They can be used to predict human behavior only if the situation is clearly specified.
c. There is general consensus among OB researchers and scholars on the simple concepts that underlie most human behavior.
d. The cause-effect principles that tend to apply to all situations have been discovered.
e. Cause and effect relationships for most human behaviors have been isolated.
e. few if any
There are _____ simple and universal principles that explain organizational behavior.
a. an infinity of
b. absolutely no
c. a confusing array of
d. fourteen
e. few if any
e. contingency
In order to predict human behavior with any degree of accuracy, what sort of variables must be taken into account?
a. global
b. general
c. dependent
d. non-reactive
e. contingency
e. Fear of terrorism
_____ is/are the number one reason that business travelers have cut back on their travel.
a. Lower profits
b. Shareholder interventions
c. Greater communications technology
d. Better accounting principles
e. Fear of terrorism
e. work design
Which of the following OB topics is not central to managing employees’ fears about terrorism?
a. emotion
b. motivation
c. communication
d. leadership
e. work design
b. globalization; workforce diversity
Whereas _____ focuses on differences among people from different countries, _____ addresses differences among people within given countries.
a. workforce diversity; globalization
b. globalization; workforce diversity
c. culture; diversity
d. culturization; workforce diversity
e. psychology; social psychology
b. Workforce diversity
_____ is a measure of how organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity.
a. Globalization
b. Workforce diversity
c. Affirmative action
d. Organizational culture
e. Operational homogeneity
a. by recognizing that employees don’t set aside their cultural values, lifestyle preferences, and differences when they come to work
In what way does current thought on workplace diversity differ from the older “melting-pot” assumption?
a. by recognizing that employees don’t set aside their cultural values, lifestyle preferences, and differences when they come to work
b. by realizing that people from diverse backgrounds will automatically begin to integrate into the larger workplace and community over time
c. by taking active steps to minimize the effect of cultural values and lifestyle preference within the workplace
d. by openly seeking a heterogeneous workplace and avoiding homogeneity wherever possible
e. by using techniques such as structured workshops to show employees that behavior that is perfectly valid within their community may not be valid in the context of the workplace
e. women
In 2003, which group made up 46.7 percent of the U.S. labor force?
a. people over the age of 65
b. Latino/as
c. African-Americans
d. men
e. women
b. An increase in the number of technical positions filled by women.
What is the probable consequence of the fact that women significantly outnumber men on U.S. college campuses?
a. Eventual parity in the number of men and women in the workforce.
b. An increase in the number of technical positions filled by women.
c. An increase in competition between men for professional and managerial jobs
d. A steady increase in the number of technical, professional, and managerial positions
e. A decrease in the competition for jobs in positions that have traditionally been filled by women
e. professional
Increasingly, we can expect that women will be hired into _____ positions.
a. menial
b. traditionally female
c. medical (nurse)
d. socially-oriented
e. professional
e. the rapid increase in the percentage of workers that are women
What was the most significant change in the U.S. labor force during the last half of the twentieth century?
a. substantial decreases in the number of workers who are under 55
b. increases in the percentage of U.S. citizens of Hispanic origin
c. increasing numbers of African-Americans at all levels within the workforce
d. the steady increase in the percentage of workers that are men
e. the rapid increase in the percentage of workers that are women
d. It is critical that all workers be treated alike.
Which of the following statements is not an implication of increased workplace diversity?
a. Managers should recognize differences between workers.
b. Diversity training should be provided.
c. Employee benefits should be revamped to accommodate the different needs of different employees.
d. It is critical that all workers be treated alike.
e. Innovation and creativity in organizations is likely to increase.
e. higher turnover
According to the textbook, when diversity is not managed properly, there is a potential for _____.
a. higher creativity
b. communication benefits
c. labor cost inequities
d. increased competitiveness
e. higher turnover
e. simplification
According to management guru Tom Peters, almost all quality improvement comes from _____ of design, manufacturing, layout, processes, and procedures.
a. modification
b. stratification
c. integration
d. separation
e. simplification
d. employees
Today’s managers understand that the success of any effort at improving quality and productivity must include _____.
a. process reengineering
b. quality management programs
c. customer service improvements
d. employees
e. manufacturing simplification
b. service jobs
The majority of employees today in developed countries work in _____.
a. manufacturing jobs
b. service jobs
c. MNCs
d. government agencies
e. the military
e. 80
Approximately _____ % of the U.S. labor force is employed in service industries.
a. 10
b. 25
c. 40
d. 60
e. 80
e. production line worker
Service industry jobs include all of the following except _____.
a. fast good counter worker
b. sales clerk
c. waiter
d. nurse
e. production line worker
e. globalization
Which of the following factors makes it imperative that organizations be fast and flexible?
a. temporariness
b. corporate excess
c. truncated capacity
d. advances in corporate strategy
e. globalization
e. limit their mobility if they hope to compete
Given the climate of “temporariness” in modern organizations, employees must _____.
a. continually update their knowledge and skills
b. be prepared to stay in the same position for longer periods of time
c. make closer connections to their peers
d. foster friendship within the work environment
e. limit their mobility if they hope to compete
e. managing people who work together but are geographically separated
Which of the following is the major challenge to managers in a fully networked organization?
a. eliminating the need for paper communication by relying entirely on email, file transfers and the like
b. retaining team members who can easily move to another employer when demand for their services changes
c. managing contract and temporary workers
d. maintaining a “virtual office” through the use of computers, interoffice networks and the Internet
e. managing people who work together but are geographically separated
e. Networked organizations
_____ allow(s) people to communicate and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart.
a. Flexible cubicles
b. Stratified work environments
c. Cyber-empowerment machines
d. widespread use of computers
e. Networked organizations
d. creation of flexible teams
70. Which of the following has not contributed to blurring the lines between employees’ work life and personal life?
a. the creation of global organizations
b. communications technology allowing employees to work any time and from any place
c. organizations asking employees to put in longer hours
d. creation of flexible teams
e. the increase in dual career households
a. positive organizational scholarship
What growth area in OB research concerns how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential?
a. positive organizational scholarship
b. ethical behavioral research
c. balancing work-life conflict
d. networked organizational research
e. temporariness studies
c. ethical dilemmas
Situations where an individual is required to define right and wrong conduct are termed _____.
a. diversity issues
b. human resource problems
c. ethical dilemmas
d. loyalty situations
e. social puzzles
a. abstraction of reality
A model is a(n) _____.
a. abstraction of reality
b. someone held in high esteem
c. independent variable
d. real-world scenario
e. dependent variable
e. organizational citizenship behavior
Which of the following has only recently been considered a primary dependent variable in organizational behavior?
a. productivity
b. absenteeism
c. turnover
d. job satisfaction
e. organizational citizenship behavior
e. effectiveness and efficiency
At its root, productivity involves concern for both ____.
a. dependence and independence
b. diversity and homogeneity
c. motivation and distraction
d. absenteeism and motivation
e. effectiveness and efficiency
a. operating at the lowest possible cost while yielding a higher output
Which of the following is an example of being an efficient company?
a. operating at the lowest possible cost while yielding a higher output
b. creating the highest customer satisfaction ratings
c. meeting the production schedule
d. obtaining the highest market share
e. maximizing diversity at high cost
a. to generate additional revenue
Why did Sears try to improve the employee-customer interaction through training of its employees?
a. to generate additional revenue
b. to decrease merchandise returns
c. to improve repeat customer business.
d. to increase job satisfaction
e. to lower complaints made about employee behavior
b. turnover
What term is used to describe voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization?
a. absenteeism
b. turnover
c. downsizing
d. truancy
e. social atrophy
c. Organizational citizenship
_____ is discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirement, but that promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
a. Productivity
b. Motivation
c. Organizational citizenship
d. Organizational behavior
e. Corporate strategy
a. leadership
Individual-level independent variables include all of the following except _____.
a. leadership
b. learning
c. perception
d. motivation
e. decision-making
e. reacting
When Ms. McKay develops a strategy for achieving her department’s goals, she is performing the_____ function of management.
a. planning
b. organizing
c. leading
d. controlling
e. reacting
b. organizing
When Ms. McKay determines which employees will do what tasks, she is performing the _____ function of management.
a. planning
b. organizing
c. leading
d. controlling
e. reacting
c. leading
When Ms. McKay motivates her employees and attempts to resolve conflicts among department members, she is performing the _____ function of management.
a. planning
b. organizing
c. leading
d. controlling
e. reacting
d. controlling
When Ms. McKay compares projected sales to actual sales in her department, she is performing the _____ function of management.
a. planning
b. organizing
c. leading
d. controlling
e. reacting