Chapter 1 to 5 Family Resources Management

Family Resource Management
understanding decisions individuals and families make about development and allocating resources
types of resources
time, money, material assets, energy, friends, neighbors, space and goals
the identification of resources to meet specific needs is guided by what three things?
culture, availability, and accessibility
decision making process: rational
has long lasting impact on the family involving alternatives, assessing consequences, estimating risk/uncertainty, determining value of consequences and selecting action
example: education or medical decisions
decision making process: bureaucratic
low risk and uncontested decisions that are habitual
example: grocery shopping
decision making process: political
produce outcomes that are related to power of the individuals within in the group
example: parents deciding to relocate
5 step decision model: first step
recognize need
5 step decision model: second step
identify alternatives
5 step decision model: third step
evaluate alternatives
5 step decision model: fourth step
select and implement alternatives
5 step decision model: fifth step
reflect and evaluate selected alternative
what contexts are families influenced by?
history, culture, and environment
context of history
families change and how they manage resources changes as history eveolves.
role of women, social aspects, work force, war, terrorist attacks, recession and economic depression
context of environment
availability and accessibility of resources greatly influences how resources are used and managed.
context of culture
culture and diversity have an impact on identification, use, and production of material and human resources
example: family experience
worldview according to kluckkhon and strodbeck
a framework for comparing and contrasting the different value systems between different cultural groups
orientation: human nature
belief system that informs decision making
evil, mix of evil and good, and good
orientation: man and nature
are humans subjugated, in harmony, or have mastery over nature?
orientation: time
look into the past by studying or practicing past rituals, look into present by focusing on immediate, or look into future by planning, preparing and investing in future
orientation: human activity
living for today, focus becoming, or focus on accomplishments
orientation: human relations
lineal (traditional), collaborative (team work), and individualistic (myself)?
the most basic unit of society is _____
family
types of family: democratic family
modern family- bread winning husband, house wife, children (1900’s-1960s)
types of family: companionate family
married due to love (20th century)
types of family: postmodern family
families at this time in history are diverse
types of family: traditional nuclear family
implies husband wife and children are in one home
legal system defines family as
linked by marriage, blood, or adoption
life insurance policy defines family as
spouse or child
to get ssc benefits you need
marriage certificate, divorce papers, and/or dependent children ssc number
yorburgs mutual definition of family
when people define themselves as family, essentially they are family
for a family to function they need to
have a sense of belonging, emotional security, socialization, and physical and emotional needs
national marriage project founded that
less children, more divorce, less marriages, no fathers, more fragile
cultural contexts include
race, ethnicity, religion, politics, economics, and technology
quantitative data
collected w instrument, searching for correlation, and using number
qualitative data
the researcher is the instrument, pattern, words or descriptions
family systems theory/perspective
when something happens to one family member, all are affected.
( + )focuses on interconnectionism
( – ) is that this approach assumes all member are active
social exchange theory/perspective
( + ) focuses on individual resources and the bartering of the resources while explaining power bases within families
( – ) becomes problematic when analyzing role of children
symbolic interactionism theory/perspective
views families as unique and self created units
( + ) combines social and psychological concepts
( – ) lessens generalization of research findings
conflict theory/perspective
(+) recognizes that conflict is normal and expected
(-)challenges the view of families as stable social units
feminist theory/perspective
+ incorporates women’s views and experiences
– isolates role of female and male
family ecological theory/perspective
change and growth occur through experiences with outside systems
+ links family experiences to environment
– complex
family strengths theory/perspective
focuses on whats working well
– difficult with nontraditional family structures
management
(2006) set an example and provide clear guidance to your staff, control the finances of the family carefully, strive for order and method in all management activities
Fayol (1949) proposed four key concepts of management
plan, organize, lead and control
era one (1900-1930)
WWI, great depression, and start of WWII
business: humanize industry, concerned with goals of organization
home: creation of high school and university programs on meal planning, cleaning and cooking
era two (1940-1950)
WWII, economy better
business: invention and production of goods at high, product development and marketing popular
home: young family household, consumption mode, product development, women more involved
era three (1950-1960)
riots, civil rights, women’s rights
business: corporate culture, employers create norms, expectations and communication
home: family resource management, goals, decision making, organizations
era four (1970-1980)
end of Vietnam war, hate of war, political disagreement
business: protecting and empowering employees, quality control
home: vocational skills, food and nutrition, clothing and textiles, family economics
contemporary movement
business: improvement with technology, depersonalizing employees, family impacts work
home: family and consumer science, family ecology, how employment affects family
management of family: time management
in american culture time is a commodity: it can be measured, kept, saved, and wasted…
planning, scheduling, and prioritizing are key concepts for families
management of family: family planning
ability to plan and control timing of pregnancy and birth create behavioral and cultural shifts, when how and how many births are family decisions and family size
management of family: dependent care
availability, adequacy, and expenses
families that choose to have children increase the need for resource management, working parents need child care availability and working adults also have to arrange care for their parents
management of family: financial
families must manage the flow of resources into and out of the family unit to maintain its needs of the group.
Payne (1998) finical management
financial stable families focus on long term,
middle class focus on short term savings and monthly cash flow,
families in poverty focus on cash not on saving
need
necessity like food water and shelter
secondary needs
specific to needs
for example: clean water
want
something you would like to have but is not essential
maslows hierarchy : need1
physiogical needs: like food shelter water sex and sleep
maslows hierarchy : need 2
safety and security: like employment, property, morality, physical health and safeness
maslows hierarchy : need 3
love and belonging: like friendship, family, sexual intimacy
maslows hierarchy : need 4
self esteem: like confidence, achievement, respect
maslows hierarchy : need 5
self actualization: like morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, open minded
needs and wants are both determined by
personal choice
CREM model
concept that consumers manage resources to meet their needs assuming that: consumers seek to manage resources that enable them to function more effectively (nutrition, relationships, money, intellect), individual differences will exist in level of importance, resources exist as part of interrelated/interdependent systems and time
category of needs: economic
Require an exchange of payment
Money is used to exchange for basic and higher level needs and wants:
Employment
Inheritance
Public assistance
category of needs: physiological
Food, water, and shelter plus health care
Perception of good health is based on their desired needs/wants
category of needs: psychological
Coping and planning skills are essential to both the physical health and mental well-being of family members
Self esteem
Autonomy
Competence
category of needs: social
impact one’s ability to function in larger social groups; these needs reflect their relatedness with society
changes perceptions of needs: circumstances
internal, external, short term and long term
changes perceptions of needs: personality
desires, motivations, behaviors
changes perceptions of needs: economic
rise out of poverty, education, employment, socioeconomic status
changes perceptions of needs: technology
increase of available information, resource identification
changes perceptions of needs: culture
informs perceptions and priorities
changes perceptions of needs: lifespan
changes over time through experiences
changes perceptions of needs: communal
more common for women (social relationships)
changes perceptions of needs: agentic
more common for men (independence, control, self-motivation)
needs assessment:
Be representative of the population being served
Be current
Be used for the population intended
Include information: culture, age, ethnicity, family structure, employment, health etc.
Clear understanding of the problems and accessibility
Planned or artificial obsolescence
the need for change creates the need to buy the newest version / we are creating disposable society
value (economic/consumer)
a measurement of exchange: consumer feels they received a good turn
Value (social/psychological)
guiding principles of thoughts and behavior
universal values
assumed to be important principles across nations and ethnicities but difficult to agree upon on
ex. human rights
cultural values
they are groups formal or informal set of beliefs of what’s important
framed in terms of what is right and wrong are often referred to as
morals
Kholberg proposed that
humans develop a set of morals as they mature both socially and intellectually but doesn’t assume that individuals go through each stage
preconventional stage
obedience and punishment; birth to 9 years old ; right and wrong determined by what they are punished for
Conventional stage
Interpersonal concordance; Most adolescents and adults; right and wrong determined by what the majority think it is
Post conventional
social contract; majority of adults; Right and wrong determined by personal values that can be over-ridden by laws that we can choose to ignore.
Homogamy:
Purposeful selection of mates from a pool that has similar characteristics to our own; most visible with regards to race, religion, social class – suggests that they have similar moral and value bases.
family values
used to discuss socioeconomic concepts pertaining to the family as a social institution
Folbre uses love, obligation, and reciprocity to define a concept of a
social institution
values across a lifetime do what
psychological constructs (such as values) that develop slowly over time become deeply ingrained in individuals and family units
Experiences, cognitive dev., maturity, technology, inventions and discoveries can cause us to pause or reconsider
attitudes
Reflections of the values we hold; they can be learned and can change with experiences and education
behaviors
Choices made and actions taken by individuals and families that become important in the family decision-making process
who explores the connections btw. Attitude and behavior
fishbein and ajzen
fishbein and ajzen connects attitudes w behavior by
One’s behavior can be predicted from intention
Intentions can be predicted from one’s attitude toward the behavior and one’s perception of what others think one should do
Attitude is a function of how one perceives the action’s outcome will be received by others.
Subjective Norm: belief about how people you care about will view the behavior in question.
dupont says that
actions are motivated by needs and values
kurtinez and gewirts say that
added situation to the mix- connection btw. attitude and behavior