Chapter 1: Innovative Management for a Changing World

management
attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources
organization
social entity that is goal directed and deliberately structured
effectiveness
degree to which the organization achieves a stated goal, or succeeds in accomplishing what it tries to do; providing a product or service that customers value
efficiency
amount of resources – raw materials, money, and people – used to produce a desired volume of output; based on how much raw material, money, and people are necessary for producing a given volume of output. Can be calculated as the amount of resources used to produce a product or service
performance
organization’s ability to attain its goals by using resources in an efficient and effective manner
role
set of expectations for a manager’s behavior
interim managers
contingent managers, managers not affiliated with a specific organization but work on a project-by-project basis or temporarily provide expertise to organizations in a specific area
customer relationship management (CRM)
systems that use the latest info technology to keep in close touch with customers, collect and manage late amounts of customer data, and provide superior customer value
outsourcing
contracting out selected functions or activities to other organizations that can do the work more cost efficiently, has been one the the fastest-growing trends in recent years
social forces
aspects of a society that guide and influence relationships among people, such as their values, needs, and standards of behavior
political forces
relate to the influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations; increased role of government in business is one example
economic forces
affect the availability, production, and distribution of a society’s resources
classical perspective
study of modern management began in the late nineteenth century with the…, which took a rational, scientific approach to management and sought to make organizations efficient operating machines
scientific management
subfield of the classical perspective that emphasizes scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity; one of most significant innovations influencing modern management; Frederick Winslow Taylor father of this
bureaucratic organization
another subfield of the classical perspective which emphasizes management on an impersonal, rational basis through elements such as clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal record keeping, and separation of management and ownership; Max Weber introduced most of the concepts
administrative principles
subfield of the classical perspective that focuses on the total organization rather than the individual worker and delineates the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling; Henri Fayol major contributor to this approach
humanistic perspective
emphasized understanding human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the workplace
human relations movement
stresses the satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased productivity
Hawthorne studies
important in shaping ideas concerning how manager should treat workers
human resources perspective
suggests that jobs should be designed to meet people’s higher-level needs by allowing employees to use their full potential
behavioral sciences approach
draws from psychology, sociology, and other social sciences to develop theories about human behavior and interaction in an organizational setting
quantitative perspective
uses mathematics, statistical techniques, and computer technology to facilitate management decision making, particularly for complex problems
system
set of interrelated parts that function as a whole to achieve a common purpose; an organizations an example
systems thinking
looking not just at discrete parts of an organizational situation but also at the continually changing interactions among the parts
subsystems
parts of a system that depend on one another for their functioning
synergy
whole is greater than the sum of its parts; organization must be managed as a whole
contingency view
tells managers that what works in one organizational situation might not work in others; manager can identify important contingencies that help guide their decisions regarding the organization
total quality management (TQM)
focuses on managing the total organization to deliver quality to customers; 4 significant elements are employee involvement, focus on the customer, benchmarking, and continuous improvement; W. Edwards Deming is “father of the quality movement”
benchmarking
process whereby companies find out how others do something better than they do and then try to imitate or improve on it