Chapter 1-5

Customer Value is

-The cost of your product divided by the cost of the best competitor

-The difference between all the benefits derived from a total product and all the costs of securing those benefits.

-the current cost of a product relative to its normal or average cost.

-all the benefits a customer receives from the product

-all of the above

The difference between all the benefits derived from a total product and all the costs of securing those benefits.
True or False:

Self-concept is a major step in the consumer’s decision process.

False
True or False:

Marketing strategy ends with conducting a market analysis

False

It starts with it.

Which of the following is not included in marketing communications?

-Price

-Advertising

-Public relations

-Packaging

-All are included

Price
Which of the following is NOT part of the model of marketing strategy and consumer behavior presented in the text?

-Cash flow analysis

-market analysis

-market segmentation

-consumer decision process

-all of the above are part of the model

Cash flow analysis
Injurious consumption occurs when:

-Individuals make consumption decisions that have a negative impact on their long-run well being

-a product is introduced that does not meet consumer needs

– a firm adversities benefits that the product cannot deliver.

-consumers purchase products for symbolic rather than functional reasons

-all of the above

-Individuals make consumption decisions that have a negative impact on their long-run well being
Shoppers who care about mall essentials and brand-name merchandise are know as:

-brand shoppers
-basic shoppers
-destination shoppers
-enthusiast shoppers
-serious shoppers

-destination shoppers
Which of the following are applications of consumer behavior?
-Marketing Strategy
-Regulatory Policy
-Informed Individuals
-A and C
-All of the above
All of the above, Marketing strategy, regulatory policy, and informed individuals are all applications of consumer behavior.
True or False:
One of the elements markets use in their evaluation of the attractiveness of various segments is the segment size.
True, Segment size is one of the many criterion used to evaluate and compare the attractiveness of various market segments.
True or False:

A segment is a portion of a larger market whose needs differ somewhat from the larger market.

True
True or False:
Most economically developed societies are legitimately referred to as marketing societies
False, Most economically developed societies are legitimately referred to as consumption societies.
True or False:

Consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experience, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.

True
True or False:

If a company’s customers value variety, the firm can provide superior value by offering more variations of its product.

True
Selecting a target market involves all of the following steps EXCEPT

A) grouping customers with similar need sets.
B) selecting an attractive group to target.
C) describing each group.
D) identifying product-related need sets.
E) all of the above are involved.

all of the above are involved.
True or False:

The first step in the consumer decision process is budget setting.

False the first step is recognition.
Cultures differ in terms of
A) demographics.
B) nonverbal communications.
C) values.
D) languages.
E) all of the above
All of the above.

Cultures differ in terms of demographics, nonverbal communications, values, and languages.

____ Result when cultural norms are violated.
A) Norms
B) Precepts
C) Sanctions
D) Prescriptions
E) Values
Sanctions

Violations of cultural norms result in sanctions, or penalties ranging from mild social disapproval to banishment from the group.

A cultural norm is:

A) punishment for violating a cultural value.
B) a set of rules that specify ranges of appropriate behaviors.
C) limited interpretative boundaries for individual behavior.
D) a widely held belief that affirms what is desirable and has an impact on activities.
E) all of the above

a set of rules that specify ranges of appropriate behaviors.

A cultural norm is a set of rules that specify ranges of appropriate behaviors.

Self-oriented values include
A) humor-serious, hard work-leisure, and tradition-change.
B) hard work-leisure, active-passive, and religious-secular.
C) risk taking-security, active-passive, and cleanliness.
D) youth-age, diversity-uniformity, and individual-collective.
E) postponed gratification-immediate gratification, active-passive, and competition-cooperation.
hard work-leisure, active-passive, and religious-secular.

Self-oriented values include hard work-leisure, active-passive, and religious-secular.

Which of the following values would be most critical for the success of a new anti-bacterial grocery cart handle?
A) diversity-uniformity
B) cleanliness
C) nature
D) problem solving/fatalistic
E) sensual gratification/abstinence
cleanliness

Cleanliness would be the most critical value for the success of a new anti-bacterial grocery cart handle.

Cultures that value ______ accept a wide variety of personal behaviors and attitudes, foods, dress, and other products and services.
A) uniformity
B) collectivism
C) power
D) diversity
E) cooperation
diversity

Cultures that value diversity will embrace variety in terms of religions, ethnic backgrounds, political beliefs, and other important behaviors and attitudes.

Which of the following values would be most critical for the success of mandated e-waste recycling?
A) postponed gratification/immediate gratification
B) material/nonmaterial
C) performance/status
D) nature
E) active/passive
nature

Nature would be the most critical value for the success of mandated e-waste recycling.

Which of the following is a factor influencing nonverbal communications?
A) etiquette
B) time
C) relationships
D) symbols
E) all are factors
all are factors

The seven variables which influence nonverbal communication are time, space, symbols, relationships, agreements, things, and etiquette.

Language is one of the cultural factors that affects consumer behavior and marketing strategy.
A) True
B) False
True

Language is one of the cultural factors that affects consumer behavior and marketing strategy.

Traditionally, China has tended to value individualism over collectivism.
A) True
B) False
False

China values collectivism, which is cooperation and conformity to a group.

The most relevant factor influencing the growth of a global culture is travel.
A) True
B) False
False

The largest single influence is worldwide mass media, including most recently the Internet.

The cost of a specialty market basket of products bought in a given country relates to the purchasing power parity (PPP) concept.
A) True
B) False
False

The purchasing power parity (PPP) concept is based on the cost of a standard market basket of products bought in each country.

Terminal materialism refers to the acquisition of items for the sake of owning the item itself.
A) True
B) False
True

Terminal materialism refers to the acquisition of an item for the sake of owning the item itself.

Fatalists tend to feel they don’t have control over the outcome of events.
A) True
B) False
True

This can reduce consumer expectations of quality and decrease the likelihood that consumers make formal complaints.

Psychographics describe a population in terms of its size, structure, and distribution.
A) True
B) False
False
Demographics describe a population in terms of its size, structure, and distribution.
Cultural values are
A) unique response patterns associated with geographic regions.
B) a set of sanctions associated with societal rules.
C) precise guidelines to appropriate behaviors.
D) widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable.
E) none of the above.
widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable.

It is necessary to understand the underlying value shifts to understand current and future consumer behavior.

A shift from an active to a passive orientation would most likely affect
A) the types of advertising themes used.
B) the role of price in purchase decisions.
C) the nature of gender roles portrayed in advertising.
D) the complexity of decision rules used in purchase decisions.
E) all of the above
the types of advertising themes used.

A shift from an active to a passive orientation would most likely affect the types of advertising themes used.

Which of the following is an environment-oriented value?
A) cleanliness
B) performance/status
C) tradition/change
D) a and c
E) all of the above
all of the above

Cleanliness, performance/status, and tradition/change are all environment-oriented values.

Which of the following is NOT an approach to green marketing?
A) utilizing only local components in products
B) producing products in a manner less harmful to the environment
C) developing products that have a positive impact on the environment
D) producing products whose use is less harmful to the environment
E) all of the above are approaches to green marketing
utilizing only local components in products

Utilizing only local components in products is not an approach to green marketing.

Which of the following is/are true regarding CRM and social marketing?
A) Social marketing benefits a firm’s image.
B) Cause-related marketing has no direct benefits to a firm.
C) Social marketing requires a “fit” between the firm and social causes.
D) Cause-related marketing ties a company and its products to an issue or cause.
E) all of the above
Cause-related marketing ties a company and its products to an issue or cause.

Social marketing does not involve the linkage of a firm with a social cause such that benefits are accrued to the firm.

Major firms such as American Express
A) do not market directly to the gay market.
B) market directly to the gay market using modified products and services.
C) first approached the gay market using standard ads.
D) all of the above.
E) none of the above
first approached the gay market using standard ads.

Major firms such as American Express market directly to the gay market using modified products and services.

The term that refers to the degree to which a person has various levels of the traits of masculinity or femininity is
A) sexual orientation.
B) gender role.
C) gender identity.
D) ascribed role.
E) none of the above.
gender identity.

Gender identity is the term that refers to the degree to which a person has various levels of the traits of masculinity or femininity.

Americans began to place a decreased emphasis on leisure, immediate gratification, and sensual gratification after the end of World War II.
A) True
B) False
False

Americans began to place an increased emphasis on leisure, immediate gratification, and sensual gratification after the end of World War II.

Twenty-five percent of U.S. men are the primary grocery shopper for their home.
A) True
B) False
False

A recent Yahoo study finds that 51 percent of adult men in the U.S. report being the primary grocer shopper for their home.

The voluntary simplicity movement in America relates to a shift in the masculine/feminine value.
A) True
B) False
False

The voluntary simplicity movement in America is consumers’ efforts to reduce their reliance on consumption and material possessions.

Less than fifty percent of American adults exercise regularly.
A) True
B) False
True

Less than fifty percent of American adults exercise regularly.

The “Skeptical Individuals” environmental activist segment is highly dismissive of environmental concerns, and doesn’t believe global warming exists.
A) True
B) False
False

“Skeptical Individuals” believe in environmental issues like global warming and carbon emission concerns, but are skeptical of corporate green efforts.

Cause-related and personal marketing both refer to the application of marketing principles and tactics to advance a cause such as a charity, an ideology, or an activity.
A) True
B) False
False

Cause-related and social marketing both refer to the application of marketing principles and tactics to advance a cause such as a charity, an ideology or an activity.

Product and service offerings that target the GLBT community almost never require modification.
A) True
B) False
False

Product modification opportunities are sometimes possible and beneficial.

The behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a given society are known as gender identity.
A) True
B) False
False

Gender roles are the behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a given society.

Consumers who are above-average viewers of CNN tend to have
A) not graduated from high school.
B) graduated from high school.
C) attended college.
D) graduated from college.
E) education is not a factor in determining who watches CNN.
graduated from high school.

Consumers who are above-average viewers of CNN tend to have graduated from high school.

Why has the population of the U.S. grown steadily since 1960?
A) longer life expectancies
B) immigration
C) increasing birth rate
D) a and b
E) all of the above
a and b

The population has grown steadily since 1960 despite birthrates that were on a strong decline through the mid 1970s, and birthrates that have been relatively steady since.

For many Americans, from the late 1980s until 1995 real income values
A) became much less important than time.
B) grew fairly rapidly.
C) declined sharply.
D) were stagnant or declining.
E) none of the above.
were stagnant or declining.

For most middle-and lower-income Americans, household incomes were stagnant or declining from the late 1980s until 1995.

An age cohort refers to
A) a group of people who feel the same age.
B) a statistical method for analyzing age-based consumption.
C) a group of people who have experienced a common social, political, historical, and economic environment.
D) the physical process associated with aging.
E) none of the above.
a group of people who have experienced a common social, political, historical, and economic environment.
The baby boom generation is
A) characterized by time poverty.
B) increasingly home and family focused.
C) much larger than other generations.
D) all of the above.
E) none of the above.
all of the above.

The baby boom generation is characterized by time poverty, increasingly home and family focused, and much larger than other generations.

The degree of consistency an individual has across all the status dimensions is known as
A) congruency.
B) status variation.
C) status crystallization.
D) status level.
E) none of the above
status crystallization.
Which of the following are common single-item indexes of social class?
A) age
B) education
C) income
D) a and b
E) b and c
b and c
Gender is the most widely applied single cue we use to initially evaluate and define individuals we meet.
A) True
B) False
False

One’s occupation provides status, education, and income information.

The approximate population of the U.S. today is 249 million.
A) True
B) False
False

The population of the U.S. is approximately 316 million.

The nouveaux riches are most commonly associated with the upper-upper class.
A) True
B) False
False

The nouveaux riches are most commonly associated with the lower-upper class.

The newest generation born after 1994 is known as the Tweens.
A) True
B) False
False

Generation Z is the newest generation born after 1994.

Generation X is also referred to as the echo boomers.
A) True
B) False
False

Generation Y is also referred to as the echo boom generation.

The teenage segment is challenging to marketers because of their limited spending ability.
A) True
B) False
False

Teens and tweens account for an estimated $200 billion in purchase power.

Which segment of mature customers is psychologically well adjusted but has physical challenges?
A) Healthy Indulgers
B) Ailing Outgoers
C) Frail Recluses
D) Healthy Hermits
E) a and c
Ailing Outgoers

Ailing Outgoers are physically challenged but maintain a positive mental outlook on life.

Cohort analysis involves describing and explaining the attitudes, values, and behaviors of an age group as well as predicting its future attitudes, values, and behaviors.
A) True
B) False
True
The heterogeneous nature of American society is being accentuated by
A) decreased non-European immigration.
B) consistent birthrates across ethnic groups.
C) decreased ethnic identification.
D) all of the above.
E) none of the above
none of the above

The heterogeneous nature of American society is being accentuated by increased non-European immigration, higher birthrates across ethnic groups, and increased ethnic identification.

Traditionally, America was considered a
A) heterogeneous collection of individuals with few common values.
B) melting pot with values derived more or less equally from all the various immigrant groups.
C) collection of distinct groups with some shared values and many unique ones.
D) melting pot with Western European values.
E) none of the above
melting pot with Western European values.

Although American society has always contained numerous subcultures, until recently many marketers treated it as a homogeneous culture based primarily on Western European values.

African Americans constitute about _____ percent of the U.S. population.
A) 7
B) 10
C) 13
D) 19
E) 26
13
Which segment of the African American market identified by Yankelovich is middle age, female, has the lowest income, feels “Black slang” should be avoided, and strongly supports “Buying Black?”
A) Black Onliners
B) Black is Better
C) Digital Networkers
D) Broadcast Blacks
E) New Middle Class
Broadcast Blacks

Broadcast Blacks are middle age females with the lowest income, feel “Black slang” should be avoided, and strongly support “Buying Black.”

Hispanics of _____ origin tend to have the highest income level among Hispanics.
A) Mexican
B) Cuban
C) Puerto Rican
D) Central American
E) b and c
b and C

Cubans and Puerto Ricans tend to have incomes well above other Hispanics

Compared to the general population, Asian Americans
A) have a higher average income.
B) have a lower average income.
C) have about the same average income.
D) all of the above.
E) none of the above
Have a higher average income

Asian Americans are the highest-educated and highest-income group, with substantial purchasing power.

Which of the following is true regarding the Roman Catholic subculture?
A) It is highly structured and hierarchical.
B) A basic tenet is that the primary purpose of marriage is procreation.
C) Twenty-nine percent of adult Catholics are Asian.
D) a and b
E) all of the above
a and b

The Roman Catholic Church is highly structured and hierarchical, and a basic tenet is that the primary purpose of marriage is procreation.

Which of the following groups is characterized by emphasis on individual responsibility and control, a strong work ethic, and relatively small families?
A) Buddhists
B) Born-again Christians
C) Protestants
D) Roman Catholics
E) Atheists
Protestants

Protestants are characterized by emphasis on individual responsibility and control, a strong work ethic, and relatively small families.

A segment of a larger culture whose members share distinguishing values and patterns of behavior is known as social norms.
A) True
B) False
False

A subculture is a segment of a larger culture whose members share distinguishing values and patterns of behavior.

Ethnic groups are the sole basis for subcultures in the United States.
A) True
B) False
False

Ethnic groups are the most commonly described subcultures, but religions and geographic regions are also the bases for strong subcultures in the United States.

The Connected Black Teens segment identified by Yankelovich is young, tech savvy, brand conscious, and not as focused on only interacting with those of the same ethnicity.
A) True
B) False
True
Appeal marketing involves creating or sponsoring an event that has a particular appeal to a market segment.
A) True
B) False
False

Event marketing involves creating or sponsoring an event that has a particular appeal to a market segment.

Mexican Americans tend to live in California, New York, and Florida.
A) True
B) False
False

Mexican Americans tend to live in the Southwest and California.

Asian-Indian Americans tend to share the family decision-making duties and responsibilities between the wife and husband.
A) True
B) False
False

Asian-Indian husbands tend to have a dominant role in family decisions.

Many Muslims are reluctant to eat in American restaurants due to concerns with how the food is prepared.
A) True
B) False
True

The more devout Muslims avoid not only pork products, but also any foods that have not been prepared in accordance with the strict rules of Islam.