Chapter 1 & 2 – Stress Management

Fight-or-flight response
The body’s stress reaction that includes an increase in heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol
Stressor
Something with the potential to cause a stress reaction
General Adaptation Syndrome
The three stages of stress reaction described by Hans Selye
Eustress
Good things to which one has to adapt and that can lead to a stress reaction
Distress
Bad things to which one has to adapt and that can lead to a stress reaction
Relaxation response
a series of bodily changes that are the opposite of the stress reaction
Autogenic training
a relaxation technique that involves a sensation of heaviness, warmth, and tingling in the limbs
Progressive relaxation
a relaxation technique that involves contracting and relaxing muscle groups throughout the body
Bracing
the contraction of muscles for no obvious purpose
Allostatic load
the cumulative biological wear and tear that results from responses to stress that seek to maintain body equilibrium
Strain
the physical, psychological, and behavioral outcomes of stress reactivity
Stress
the combination of a stressor, stress, reactivity, and strain
Cerebral cortex
the upper part of the brain responsible for thinking functions
Subcortex
the lower part of the brain responsible for various physiological processes necessary to stay alive
Cerebellum
part of the subcortex responsible for coordination
medulla oblongata
part of the subcortex responsible for the regulation of the heartbeat and breathing
Pons
part of the subcortex responsible for regulating sleep
Diencephalon
part of hte subcortex responsible for regulation of the emotions
Thalamus
part of the diencephalon that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus
part of the diencephalon that activates the autonomic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
controls such body processes are hormone balance, temperature, and width of blood vessels
Limbic system
produces emotions; the “seat of emotions”
Gray matter
the cerebral cortex
Reticular activating system (RAS)
a network of nerves that connects the mind and the body
Endocrine system
comprised of hormones that regulate physiological functions
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)
released by hypothalamus and results in the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Activates the adrenal cortex to secrete corticoid hormones
Thyrotropic hormone releasing factor (TRF)
released by hypothalamus and stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete thyrotropic hormone
Thyrotropic hormone (TTH)
stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxin
Oxytocin
a hromone secreted by the pituitary gland
Vasopressin (ADH)
a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland
Hippocampus
the part of the brain that “sounds the alarm” that stress is present
Adrenal cortex
the part of hte adrenal gland that secretes corticoids
Glucocorticoids
regulate metabolism of glucose
Mineralocorticoids
regulate the balance between sodium and potassium
Cortisol
the primary glucocorticoid secreted from the adrenal cortex that is responsible for an increase in blood glucose
Aldosterone
the primary mineralocorticoid secreted from the adrenal cortex that is responsible for an increase in blood pressure
Gluconeogenesis
the production of glucose from amino acids by the liver
Adrenal medulla
the inner portion of the adrenal gland that secretes catecholamines
Epinephrine
a catecholomine secreted by the adrenal medulla
Norepinephrine
a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla
Thyroid gland
an endocrine gland that secretes the hormone thyroxin
Sympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic nervous system responsible for expending energy
Parasympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic nervous system responsible for conserving energy
Gastrointestinal (GI) system
the body system responsible for digestion
Saliva
substance in the mouth that starts to break down food
Hydrochloric acid
a substance found in the digestive system that helps break down food for digestion
Small intestine
part of the digestive system into which the esophagus empities
Large intestine
part of the digestive system that receives unusable food substances from the small intestine
Anal opening
the exit point for unusable food substances
Bracing
unnecessary muscle tension
Skeletal muscles
muscles attached to bones
Smooth muscles
muscles that control the contraction of internal organ
Galvanic skin response
the electrodermal response or the electrical conductance of the skin
Three Phase process
the alarm reaction, stage of resistance, and stage of exhaustion
Walter Cannon
physiologist who first described the stress response as the fight-or-flight response
Hans Selye
found rats that he stressed developed substantial enlargement of the adrenal cortex; shrinkage of the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic structures; a disappearance of the eosinophil cells; and bleeding ulcers in the lining of the stomach and duodenum
Herbert Benson
cardiologist studied transcendental mediation and developed a similar meditative technique
Life-Events Theory
theory developed by Holmes and Rahe; proposes that stress occurs when a situation requires more resources than are available

Delongis and her colleagues supported the theory that hassles create more stress than large events

Hardiness Theory
Kobasa and her colleagues propose that if you perceive a potentially stressful event as a challenge rather than a threat, the less stress will result
Social Support Theory
stress occurs because there is not enough social support available to respond to the event