Chapter 04: Theories of Motivation

1. Motivation is
a. a component of ability, personal traits and desire.
b. an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence.
c. an effort toward creating goals.
d. a constant intensity.
e. an attitudinal trait.
b.an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence.
2. Kane was a manager who believed most employees worked only for money. He assumed that they disliked
work, and as a result
a. he lets employees choose their own goals.
b. he allows employees to use discretion.
c. he imposes strict controls.
d. he makes extensive use of delegating authority.
e. he allows employees to make decisions.
c.he imposes strict controls.
3. Lilly was a strong employee who was committed to the work objectives of her department and to the goals of her
company. Which of the following would likely also be applicable to her?
a. dislikes work
b. needs to be controlled
c. avoids responsibility
d. exercises self-direction
e. displays little ambition.
d.exercises self-direction
4. Which of the following statements would most likely be made by a manager who subscribes to the Theory X
approach of management?

a. ―Focus on the organization and people will take care of themselves.‖
b. ―I treat people differently in different ways based on the situation we are facing.‖
c. ―The only way to get people to work hard is to push them hard.‖
d. ―People work best if left alone.‖
e. ―People will generally seek greater responsibility and accountability when given the opportunity.‖

c.―The only way to get people to work hard is to push them hard.‖
5. SCENARIO 4-1
You are a new employee just hired with Acme Inc. Your supervisor has explained your job to you and has indicated
that you will have a great deal of control over your job once you develop your skills and prove yourself. He
compliments your history of accepting responsibility and suggests that you are to feel free to offer constructive
criticism about the way your job is structured.
Your supervisor seems to assume that your basic nature is
a. Theory X.
b. Theory Y.
c. Theory Z.
d. based on Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory.
e. Theory Y and Z combined.
b.Theory Y.
6. SCENARIO 4-1
You are a new employee just hired with Acme Inc. Your supervisor has explained your job to you and has indicated
that you will have a great deal of control over your job once you develop your skills and prove yourself. He
compliments your history of accepting responsibility and suggests that you are to feel free to offer constructive
criticism about the way your job is structured.
As a Theory Y manager, your supervisor can be expected to do all of the following except
a. assume that you will be internally motivated.
b. assume that you want to do your job.
c. allow you freedom to do your job as you believe it should be done.
d. monitor your work closely for signs that you are ―slacking off.‖
e. support your efforts to self-direct.
d.monitor your work closely for signs that you are ―slacking off.‖
7. Unlike her co-workers, Jane was motivated by challenge, personal satisfaction, and by doing interesting work;
most of her coworkers were just in it for the money. Jane was motivated by
a. intrinsic motivators.
b. safety motivators.
c. social motivators.
d. extrinsic motivators.
e. esteem motivators.
a.intrinsic motivators.
8. Chao has a lot of internal drive. His overall goal in life is to ―be all that he can be‖ in all aspects of his life.
Which level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is reflected in Tommy’s attitude?
a. social
b. self-actualization
c. physiological
d. esteem
e. safety.
b.self-actualization
9. SCENARIO 4-2
Your department is diverse – it is made up of people who are different in their lifestyles and their stages of life.
Mary is a 23-year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy
and works because he enjoys it. Jane is single, 45 years old and has few friends or activities outside the office. You
have decided to attempt to apply Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to motivate each of these individuals.
You would expect that Mary is trying to satisfy which need?
a. social
b. esteem
c. physiological
d. self-actualization
e. safety
c.physiological
10. SCENARIO 4-2
Your department is diverse – it is made up of people who are different in their lifestyles and their stages of life.
Mary is a 23-year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy
and works because he enjoys it. Jane is single, 45 years old and has few friends or activities outside the office. You
have decided to attempt to apply Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to motivate each of these individuals.
You would expect that Jane is attempting to satisfy which need?
a. social
b. esteem
c. physiological
d. self-actualization
e. safety
a.social
11. SCENARIO 4-2
Your department is diverse – it is made up of people who are different in their lifestyles and their stages of life.
Mary is a 23-year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy
and works because he enjoys it. Jane is single, 45 years old and has few friends or activities outside the office. You
have decided to attempt to apply Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to motivate each of these individuals.
Which of the following do you think would motivate Mary the most?
a. more vacation time
b. more responsibility
c. greater discretion over her job
d. more money
e. more satisfying work.
d.more money
12. James had dreamed of making lots of money since he was a child, and that has driven him to great success.
James is motivated by
a. intrinsic motivators.
b. esteem motivators.
c. extrinsic motivators.
d. safety motivators.
e. social motivators.
c.extrinsic motivators.
13. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is arranged in which order?
a. physiological, esteem, safety, social, and self-actualization
b. physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization
c. safety, physiological, esteem, social, and self-actualization
d. physiological, social, safety, esteem, and self-actualization
e. physiological, social, safety, self-actualization, and esteem
b.physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization
14. SCENARIO 4-3
Sara is a new manager who has just been hired by Glass Industries Inc. She has discovered that working conditions are not good for her employees – they work in an old building with a poor heating, air-conditioning and ventilation system. The work itself is tedious and a supervisor who reports directly to Sara is rarely available to assist and help them make decisions on unique work orders. Sara has decided to analyze this work situation using Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene. Sara decided first to analyze the dissatisfiers in the work situation. Sara will be reviewing
a. working conditions.
b. intrinsic rewards.
c. recognition.
d. advancement.
e. responsibility.
a.working conditions.
15. SCENARIO 4-3
Sara is a new manager who has just been hired by Glass Industries Inc. She has discovered that working conditions
are not good for her employees – they work in an old building with a poor heating, air-conditioning and ventilation
system. The work itself is tedious and a supervisor who reports directly to Sara is rarely available to assist and help
them make decisions on unique work orders. Sara has decided to analyze this work situation using Herzberg’s
motivation-hygiene.

Which of the following would motivate the employees according to Herzberg?
a. improvement in working conditions
b. fixing the heating system
c. receiving recognition for a job well done
d. having the supervisor ―hang around‖ more
e. eliminating the supervisor’s position.

c.receiving recognition for a job well done
16. Which of the following would Herzberg classify as a hygiene factor?
a. responsibility
b. growth
c. company policy
d. achievement
e. self-satisfaction.
c.company policy
17. Which one of the following would be considered a motivator in the motivation-hygiene theory?
a. salary
b. supervision
c. working conditions
d. recognition
e. company policy
d.recognition
18. Herzberg investigated which of the following questions?
a. What do people need from their jobs?
b. What do people dislike about their jobs?
c. What do people want from their jobs?
d. What do people take from their jobs?
e. What do people do at their jobs?
c.What do people want from their jobs?
19. According to Maslow, when does a need stop motivating?
a. when it is substantially satisfied
b. it never stops motivating
c. when one returns to a lower level need
d. when a higher level need comes into focus
e. when too many other needs come into focus.
a.when it is substantially satisfied
20. The theory which asserts that motivation depends upon the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way, which
in turn depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the
attractiveness of that outcome to the individual, is called
a. Herzberg’s dual-factor theory.
b. McClelland’s three needs theory.
c. Vroom’s expectancy theory.
d. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
e. Alderfer’s ERG theory.
c.Vroom’s expectancy theory.
21. The needs for achievement, power, and affiliation are part of whose theory?
a. Frederick Herzberg’s
b. David McClelland’s
c. Victor Vroom’s
d. Abraham Maslow’s
e. Douglas McGregor’s
b.David McClelland’s
22. What are the three core groups of needs in the ERG theory?
a. existence, external, growth
b. relatedness, growth, existence
c. existence, reliability, growth
d. external, growth, reliability
e. reliability, external, growth
b.relatedness, growth, existence
23. In contrast to the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG theory suggests that
a. no more than one need may be working at one time.
b. lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs.
c. more than one need may be working at the same time.
d. ERG is less consistent with our knowledge of individual differences than other needs theories.
e. interpersonal relationships are the most pressing need to be satisfied.
c.more than one need may be working at the same time.
24. Which of the following is least important in goal-setting theory?
a. goal difficulty
b. goal specificity
c. equity among co-workers
d. feedback
e. participation in goal setting
c.equity among co-workers
25. Management by objectives (MBO) emphasizes setting goals with the employee; according to MBO, goals should
be
a. easy to attain.
b. approved by management.
c. tangible, verifiable, measurable.
d. easy to create and develop.
e. general in nature.
c.tangible, verifiable, measurable.
26. For the individual employee, MBO provides
a. specific, personal performance objectives.
b. increased monetary compensation.
c. communication between co-workers.
d. a means to an end.
e. a way to keep the company accountable.
a.specific, personal performance objectives.
27. ROWE stands for
a. Results-Only Work Environment.
b. Recognition Organization Work Environment.
c. Realistic Organizational Work Expectancies.
d. Results-Only Work Expectancies.
e. Rational Organizational Work Environment.
a.Results-Only Work Environment.
28. SMART stands for
a. specific, measurable, attainable, reliable, and time-bound.
b. specific, unfixed, attainable, results-oriented, and time-bound.
c. specific, measurable, attainable, results-oriented, and time-bound.
d. equivocal, measurable, attainable, results-oriented, and time-bound.
e. specific, measurable, inaccessible, results-oriented, and time-bound.
c.specific, measurable, attainable, results-oriented, and time-bound.
29. ________ is the theory that individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to
good performance, followed by an outcome that is attractive to them.

a. Goal-setting theory
b. Rewards theory
c. Instrumental theory
d. Valence theory
e. Expectancy theory

e.Expectancy theory
30. SCENARIO 4-4
Your organization has decided to institute a management by objectives program. The people in your department
have asked you to explain the program and help them understand how it will affect them.
You want to make certain they understand the ingredients common to MBO programs. Which of the following is
one of those ingredients?
a. Goals should be general enough to allow creativity.
b. Decision making will be autocratic.
c. Time periods will be implicit.
d. Feedback will not be given on each employee’s performance.
e. Goals will be specific and measurable.
d.Feedback will not be given on each employee’s performance.
31. SCENARIO 4-4
Your organization has decided to institute a management by objectives program. The people in your department
have asked you to explain the program and help them understand how it will affect them.
Which of the following is an example of an MBO objective?
a. Telephone orders should be processed promptly.
b. Quality of all products should increase substantially.
c. Sales should be increased by two percent.
d. Company costs should be decreased as much as possible.
e. New customers should be brought in on a regular basis.
c.Sales should be increased by two percent.
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32. SCENARIO 4-4
Your organization has decided to institute a management by objectives program. The people in your department
have asked you to explain the program and help them understand how it will affect them.
The objectives for each individual will be set
a. unilaterally by you, the supervisor.
b. by each employee.
c. by a committee of peers.
d. by the employee and you, the supervisor.
e. by a committee of both employees and management.
d.by the employee and you, the supervisor.
33. Allowing employees to participate in goal setting, rather than have their boss arbitrarily assign a goal, has an
additional effect: each person is more likely to ________ even a difficult goal.
a. reject
b. misunderstand
c. begin resenting
d. resist achieving
e. accept
e.accept
34. SCENARIO 4-5
When you first went off to college, your father wanted you to study computer science and mathematics. Your grades
during your freshman year were not very good. During your sophomore year, you decided to pursue a major in
human resource management and your grades have gone up considerably. Your current goal is to graduate within
four years and find human resources management job in a medium-sized corporation.
Your freshman grades may be explained because the goal of a major in computer science and mathematics was
a. too specific.
b. not hard enough.
c. not one you had committed to.
d. made public.
e. too difficult to achieve.
c.not one you had committed to.
35. ________ is the belief that performance is related to rewards.
a. Valence
b. Expectancy
c. Self-esteem
d. Instrumentality
e. Perception
d.Instrumentality
36. Bikram, a recent B.Eng. (engineer), has started his first job with an engineering firm; Bikram uses a self-outside
comparison to determine if the company is treating him fairly. Bikram will compare his treatment to
a. his experience as a work study student
b. a fellow male B.Eng recently hired by the firm
c. a fellow female B.Eng hired by the firm two years ago
d. a fellow female B.Eng recently hired by another firm
e. a woman with an M.Sc. hired with Bikram for the same department
a.his experience as a work study student
37. When people perceive an imbalance in their outcome-input ratio relative to others
a. an illegal situation is assumed.
b. they expect to be promoted.
c. tension is created.
d. turnover is inevitable.
e. goal setting needs to be renewed.
c.tension is created.
38. SCENARIO 4-6
You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good
performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been
hired at a higher salary than you are now making.
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Which theory will you probably use in evaluating how you regard this situation?
a. equity
b. expectancy
c. goal setting
d. reinforcement
e. performance-reward
a.equity
39. SCENARIO 4-6
You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good
performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been
hired at a higher salary than you are now making.
Your referent comparison for equity theory is termed
a. self-inside.
b. self-outside.
c. other-inside.
d. other-outside.
e. self-other.
c.other-inside.
40. Jessica feels she received an appropriate salary increase this year, but does not believe that the company’s
methods for determining salary increases are fair. She believes there is a problem with the firm’s
a. interpersonal justice.
b. distributive justice.
c. equity practices.
d. procedural justice.
e. goal setting methods.
d.procedural justice.
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41. Within the framework of the equity theory, if an employee perceives iniquitous treatment and decides to work
harder, what choice have they made?
a. adjust perceptions of others
b. choose a different referent
c. adjust perceptions of self
d. change their outcomes
e. change their inputs
d.change their outcomes
42. Within the framework of the equity theory, if an employee perceives iniquitous treatment and decides to exert
less effort, what choice have they made?
a. change their inputs
b. change their outcomes
c. adjust perceptions of self
d. choose a different referent
e. adjust perceptions of others
a.change their inputs
43. Extrinsic reward for a task may shift employees from
a. high performance to higher performance.
b. linking performance to appropriate rewards.
c. perceiving the work task to be of less importance than others.
d. linking employee recognition to organizational goals.
e. intrinsic motivation to extrinsic motivation.
e.intrinsic motivation to extrinsic motivation.
44. Equity theory demonstrates that, for most employees, motivation is influenced by
a. relative rewards.
b. input-output ratio.
c. absolute rewards.
d. relative and absolute rewards.
e. job satisfaction.
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d.relative and absolute rewards.
45. Historically, equity theory focused on ________ justice.
a. distributive
b. procedural
c. organizational
d. interactional
e. relative.
a.distributive
46. ________ justice is the perceived fairness of process used to determine the distribution of rewards.
a. Distributive
b. Interactional
c. Organizational
d. Procedural
e. Relative.
d.Procedural
47. Kenneth Thomas identifies four key rewards that increase an individual’s intrinsic motivation; they are
a. sense of choice, sense of competence, sense of meaningfulness, sense of progress.
b. sense of justice, sense of competence, sense of meaningfulness, sense of progress.
c. sense of choice, sense of competence, sense of meaningfulness, sense of task.
d. sense of choice, sense of competence, sense of meaningfulness, sense of justice.
e. sense of choice, sense of judgment, sense of meaningfulness, sense of progress.
a.sense of choice, sense of competence, sense of meaningfulness, sense of progress.
48. When a salesperson is paid a commission based on some aggregate of sales, this is evidence of
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a. gain sharing.
b. an individual performance award.
c. objective goal setting.
d. management discretion.
e. participative decision making.
b.an individual performance award.
49. Sense of competence is
a. the opportunity to delegate authority.
b. the opportunity to pursue worthwhile tasks.
c. the opportunity to compete with others.
d. the opportunity to select what one will do and perform the way one thinks best.
e. the feeling of accomplishment from doing a good job.
e.the feeling of accomplishment from doing a good job.
50. Which of the following set of four behaviours has Kenneth Thomas identified as ones that can build intrinsic
rewards for their employees?
a. leading for choice, leading for justice, leading for meaningfulness, and leading for progress
b. leading for choice, leading for competence, leading for meaningfulness, and leading for progress
c. leading for passion, leading for competence, leading for meaningfulness, and leading for progress
d. leading for choice, leading for competence, leading for meaningfulness, and leading for satisfaction
b.leading for choice, leading for competence, leading for meaningfulness, and leading for
progress
51. An employee motivated by intrinsic rewards, would most likely choose
a. ongoing opportunities for education and training.
b. a company car.
c. incentive bonuses.
d. increased salary.
e. generous employee benefits.
a.ongoing opportunities for education and training.
52. According to Cognitive Evaluation Theory, providing incentive pay
a. causes co-workers to compete with each other for rewards.
b. encourages employees to perform at a higher level to balance the i/o ratio.
c. changes the employee’s perceptions of self.
d. decreases employees’ overall levels of intrinsic motivation.
e. helps employees meet their need for achievement.
d.decreases employees’ overall levels of intrinsic motivation.
53. Which theory considers the issue of whether intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are independent?
a. expectancy
b. reinforcement
c. equity
d. cognitive evaluation
e. goal-setting
d.cognitive evaluation
54. Which of the following is suggested by cognitive evaluation theory?
a. It would make sense to make an individual’s pay non-contingent on performance.
b. Employees are motivated by a hierarchy of needs.
c. Extrinsic rewards increase intrinsic rewards.
d. Needs are divided into higher-order and lower-order categories.
e. It would make sense to make an individual’s pay contingent on performance.
a.It would make sense to make an individual’s pay non-contingent on performance.
55. Of the following statements, the weakest set of criteria to evaluate employee performance would be
a. good attitude or self-confidence.
b. promptness in submitting monthly reports.
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c. average number of contact calls per day.
d. number of new accounts established.
e. dollar increase in sales.
a.good attitude or self-confidence.
56. Assigning goals appears to generate greater goal commitment in
a. all cultures around the globe.
b. in low individualism cultures.
c. in low power distance cultures.
d. in high power distance cultures.
e. in high individualism cultures.
d.in high power distance cultures.
57. SCENARIO 4-8
Alice Ann Jones is the new director of human resources for a small consulting firm and has been charged with
developing a performance evaluation and reward system. Alice Ann recognizes the importance of performance
evaluation and rewards on employee behaviour and asks for your opinion and advice.
Alice Ann tells you that the firm pays on the basis of the productivity of each employee. Research on motivation
would say this creates
a. higher intrinsic motivation towards tasks.
b. lower intrinsic motivation toward tasks.
c. self determination.
d. higher job satisfaction.
e. lower productivity.
b.lower intrinsic motivation toward tasks.
58. SCENARIO 4-8
Alice Ann Jones is the new director of human resources for a small consulting firm and has been charged with
developing a performance evaluation and reward system. Alice Ann recognizes the importance of performance
evaluation and rewards on employee behaviour and asks for your opinion and advice.
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Alice Ann’s opinion is that her firm would like employees to be creative in their thinking and empowered to act and
solve problems that arise. You suggest that goal setting with employees may be a positive process to help
accomplish this. Which of the following is true of goal setting?
a. if the employee chooses the goal because of intrinsic interest, the employee is likely to be happier when the
goal is achieved.
b. if the employee chooses the goal because of intrinsic interest, the employee is more likely to achieve the goal.
c. if the employee chooses the goal because of intrinsic interest, the employee is less likely to achieve the goal.
d. if the employee chooses the goal because of intrinsic interest, the employee is likely to be unhappy if the goal
is not achieved.
e. if the employee chooses the goal because of intrinsic interest, there must still be an extrinsic reward for the
goal to be motivating.
a.if the employee chooses the goal because of intrinsic interest, the employee is likely to be
happier when the goal is achieved.
59. SCENARIO 4-8
Alice Ann Jones is the new director of human resources for a small consulting firm and has been charged with
developing a performance evaluation and reward system. Alice Ann recognizes the importance of performance
evaluation and rewards on employee behaviour and asks for your opinion and advice.
If Alice provides rewards that increase intrinsic motivation of the employees, she would be offering employees a
sense of
a. choice, competence and conditioning
b. choice, meaningfulness and conditioning
c. competence, determination and progress
d. choice, competence and meaningfulness
e. determination, competence and meaningfulness
d.choice, competence and meaningfulness
60. Don was in the habit of reprimanding employees when they arrived late for work. The second time an employee
was late, he or she would be docked pay. Don is using which type of reinforcement?
a. positive
b. negative
c. punishment
d. extinction
e. critical incident
c.punishment
61. If a manager uses positive or negative reinforcement when an employee completes a task, the manager is trying
to
a. strengthen the behaviour of completing the task.
b. weaken the behaviour of completing the task.
c. strengthen the behaviour of completing the task with positive reinforcement and weaken the behaviour of
completing the task with negative reinforcement.
d. weaken the behaviour of completing the task with positive reinforcement and strengthen the behaviour of
completing the task with negative reinforcement..
e. intermittently strengthen the behaviour by using positive reinforcement and then negative reinforcement.
a.strengthen the behaviour of completing the task.
62. Reinforcement theory allows managers to vary rewards and punishments based on
a. time intervals and fixed schedules.
b. time intervals and behaviour ratios.
c. intermittent schedules and fixed intervals.
d. continuous reinforcement behaviour intervals.
e. intermittent schedules and .
b.time intervals and behaviour ratios.
63. Tina is a weak manager because when she trains people the reinforcement type she uses is
a. positive reinforcement.
b. fixed interval.
c. fixed ratio.
d. punishment.
e. intermittent extinction.
d.punishment.
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64. Weekly paychecks are an example of what type of schedule of reinforcement?
a. continuous
b. fixed-interval
c. fixed-ratio
d. variable-interval
e. variable-ratio
b.fixed-interval
65. SCENARIO 4-9
Central Manufacturing Inc. fabricates medium- and large-scale watercraft, primarily for commercial use. They also
manufacture accessories for a variety of boats and marine service vessels. Central Manufacturing struggles to keep
costs down while maintaining profitability in a highly competitive market. Military and commercial contracts are its
main source of business.
Employees at Central Manufacturing appear to be dedicated individuals who, through their combined efforts, were
able to save the company $1.5 million in energy costs by means of simple efficiency. For this initiative, they did not
receive much recognition other than some encouragement and T-shirts recognizing their contribution to the
company. Robert West, operations supervisor, believed that individuals had to earn respect, and that if other savings
could be realized they would certainly be welcomed by the company. Although supportive of employee efforts,
Robert didn’t seem to acknowledge the impact on the company’s bottom line.
Dan White, vice president of operations, recognized that Central Manufacturing needed to change its operations in
order to shake its bureaucratic and authoritarian image. Although Robert praised employees and talked about
performance, there was little in the way of resources to move the reward process any further. Dan undertook the
initiative to attempt to change things, which meant creating a new process for both managers like Robert West and
his employees.
The employees had assumed that they were fairly secure in their jobs, since the company had a monopoly on
specialized watercraft manufacturing. As with most manufacturing concerns in Canada, however, when a recession
occurred 200 employees, representing about one third of the workforce, were suddenly laid off. Although this was a
major blow to Central Manufacturing, Dan White and George North, director of human resources, launched a new
program to track, monitor, measure, recognize and reward employees for their efforts. Accountability and
performance were to be a major focus in these programs.
As the program commenced, some employees and their supervisors started to display progress charts. More ideas for
operations improvement began to flow once it became evident what was actually going on. Positive feedback was
forthcoming from customers and Dan realized that his initiative was starting to pay off.
Robert West appeared to be a manager oriented towards traditional ways of doing things. He was convinced that
individuals had to earn their positions and needed to be monitored carefully with respect to their jobs and the
directions into which they were headed. It is likely that Robert
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a. was a Theory Y manager.
b. emphasized ERG theory.
c. was a Theory X manager.
d. emphasized goal-setting theory.
e. was a Theory Z manager.
c.was a Theory X manager.
66. SCENARIO 4-9
Central Manufacturing Inc. fabricates medium- and large-scale watercraft, primarily for commercial use. They also
manufacture accessories for a variety of boats and marine service vessels. Central Manufacturing struggles to keep
costs down while maintaining profitability in a highly competitive market. Military and commercial contracts are its
main source of business.
Employees at Central Manufacturing appear to be dedicated individuals who, through their combined efforts, were
able to save the company $1.5 million in energy costs by means of simple efficiency. For this initiative, they did not
receive much recognition other than some encouragement and T-shirts recognizing their contribution to the
company. Robert West, operations supervisor, believed that individuals had to earn respect, and that if other savings
could be realized they would certainly be welcomed by the company. Although supportive of employee efforts,
Robert didn’t seem to acknowledge the impact on the company’s bottom line.
Dan White, vice president of operations, recognized that Central Manufacturing needed to change its operations in
order to shake its bureaucratic and authoritarian image. Although Robert praised employees and talked about
performance, there was little in the way of resources to move the reward process any further. Dan undertook the
initiative to attempt to change things, which meant creating a new process for both managers like Robert West and
his employees.
The employees had assumed that they were fairly secure in their jobs, since the company had a monopoly on
specialized watercraft manufacturing. As with most manufacturing concerns in Canada, however, when a recession
occurred 200 employees, representing about one third of the workforce, were suddenly laid off. Although this was a
major blow to Central Manufacturing, Dan White and George North, director of human resources, launched a new
program to track, monitor, measure, recognize and reward employees for their efforts. Accountability and
performance were to be a major focus in these programs.
As the program commenced, some employees and their supervisors started to display progress charts. More ideas for
operations improvement began to flow once it became evident what was actually going on. Positive feedback was
forthcoming from customers and Dan realized that his initiative was starting to pay off.
White recognizes that equity theory will play a large role in how he organizes and develops his new program.
Individual employees have a tendency to compare themselves with others and have a series of options available to
them if they perceive that some sort of inequity exists. Which of the following is a typical employee response to a
perceived inequity?
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a. Employees will exert more effort.
b. Employees will tend to keep their outcomes unchanged.
c. Employees will maintain their perceptions of others.
d. Employees will have a tendency to quit their jobs.
e. Employees will embrace the process of goal setting.
d.Employees will have a tendency to quit their jobs.
67. SCENARIO 4-9
Central Manufacturing Inc. fabricates medium- and large-scale watercraft, primarily for commercial use. They also
manufacture accessories for a variety of boats and marine service vessels. Central Manufacturing struggles to keep
costs down while maintaining profitability in a highly competitive market. Military and commercial contracts are its
main source of business.
Employees at Central Manufacturing appear to be dedicated individuals who, through their combined efforts, were
able to save the company $1.5 million in energy costs by means of simple efficiency. For this initiative, they did not
receive much recognition other than some encouragement and T-shirts recognizing their contribution to the
company. Robert West, operations supervisor, believed that individuals had to earn respect, and that if other savings
could be realized they would certainly be welcomed by the company. Although supportive of employee efforts,
Robert didn’t seem to acknowledge the impact on the company’s bottom line.
Dan White, vice president of operations, recognized that Central Manufacturing needed to change its operations in
order to shake its bureaucratic and authoritarian image. Although Robert praised employees and talked about
performance, there was little in the way of resources to move the reward process any further. Dan undertook the
initiative to attempt to change things, which meant creating a new process for both managers like Robert West and
his employees.
The employees had assumed that they were fairly secure in their jobs, since the company had a monopoly on
specialized watercraft manufacturing. As with most manufacturing concerns in Canada, however, when a recession
occurred 200 employees, representing about one third of the workforce, were suddenly laid off. Although this was a
major blow to Central Manufacturing, Dan White and George North, director of human resources, launched a new
program to track, monitor, measure, recognize and reward employees for their efforts. Accountability and
performance were to be a major focus in these programs.
As the program commenced, some employees and their supervisors started to display progress charts. More ideas for
operations improvement began to flow once it became evident what was actually going on. Positive feedback was
forthcoming from customers and Dan realized that his initiative was starting to pay off.
In the long term, White decides that equity theory will provide the best guidance for him regarding motivating and
providing recognition to the employees. He is also aware that the unions may be constantly battling his new
initiatives. Equity theory demonstrates that, for most employees, motivation is influenced
a. significantly by goal setting as well as by ability to be productive.
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b. by union influence over their welfare.
c. solely by monetary rewards.
d. significantly by relative rewards as well as by absolute rewards.
e. significantly by goal setting as well as by absolute rewards.
d.significantly by relative rewards as well as by absolute rewards.
68. Roy really disliked his job. He forced himself to go to work each day out of fear of losing his only source of
income. Roy was working mainly because of
a. negative reinforcement.
b. operant conditioning.
c. positive reinforcement.
d. intermittent reinforcement.
e. continuous reinforcement.
a.negative reinforcement.
69. Kelly, a single mother, recently re-entered the workforce in order to be able to pay for her most basic needs,
namely food shelter and clothing for her and her son. According to Maslow, which need level was she trying to
fulfill?
a. self-actualization
b. esteem
c. safety
d. social
e. physiological
e.physiological
70. When Brock was recently deciding between two job offers, his decision came down to which offer reflected the
better health insurance, pension plan, and safe working conditions. According to Maslow, which need level is he
focusing on in his decision?
a. esteem
b. physiological
c. safety
d. social
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e. self-actualization
c.safety
71. Don was a real ―people person‖ so he was glad when his employer recently began to emphasize working in
teams. Don enjoyed working with others as opposed to by himself. According to Maslow, which need level is
motivating Don?
a. esteem
b. safety
c. self-actualization
d. physiological
e. social
e.social
72. ABC Inc. is well known as a company that uses a human relations approach; the company emphasizes nurtures
creativity and self-control in its employees. This company was following
a. Theory X.
b. Theory Z.
c. Theory Y.
d. Theory T.
e. Theory Q.
c.Theory Y.
73. Zeke was a manager who believed that, in general, people disliked work; he believed people had to be forced or
threatened with punishment to motivate them to work. Zeke believes in which of the following management
theories?
a. Theory Z
b. Theory X
c. Theory Y
d. Theory Q
e. Theory T
b.Theory X
74. When dealing with his employees, Ted follows the practice of explicitly setting aside time to find out what kind
of rewards each of his employees prefers and striving to offer these in the work environment He is likely following
a. equity theory.
b. goal-setting theory.
c. expectancy theory.
d. EKG theory.
e. hygiene theory.
c.expectancy theory.
75. Based on her long experience as a manager, Stella was convinced that people exert higher levels of effort when
the goals set out for them are challenging and specific. Stella appears to be an advocate of
a. expectancy theory.
b. equity theory.
c. goal-setting theory.
d. Theory Y.
e. motivation-hygiene theory.
c.goal-setting theory.
76. Harry was concerned about one of his best employees, Karen. She was great at what she did, but she was
chronically late for work. To correct this, every time Karen wasn’t late for work, he made a point of acknowledging
it. Harry was utilizing
a. intermittent reinforcement.
b. negative reinforcement.
c. operant reinforcement.
d. continuous reinforcement.
e. variable reinforcement.
d.continuous reinforcement.
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77. The premise that people learn how to behave to get something that they want or to avoid something that they
don’t want is called
a. positive reinforcement.
b. extinction.
c. operant conditioning.
d. continuous reinforcement.
e. intermittent reinforcement.
c.operant conditioning.
78. Which of the following is a process theory of motivation?
a. equity theory
b. expectancy theory
c. needs theory
d. hygiene theory
e. ERG theory.
b.expectancy theory
79. Tonya was confused. In order to motivate Sam, one of her employees, she began to pay him for work that she
knew he liked to do and for which he was previously not paid. However, she noticed that his overall level of
motivation appeared to decrease. The motivation theory that best explains this example is
a. operant conditioning.
b. distributive justice.
c. cognitive evaluation theory.
d. Maslow theory.
e. Theory X.
c.cognitive evaluation theory.
80. Jason faced an uproar recently after his employees received their annual pay increases. The employees
complained that the company didn’t follow a fair process in awarding the increases. This is an example of
a. distributive justice.
b. procedural justice.
c. interactional justice.
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d. operant justice.
e. equitable justice.
b.procedural justice.
81. Carrie was unhappy with the pay increase that she recently received. She didn’t think that the dollar value was
fair relative to her performance, and she was even more upset that some of her coworkers received a greater increase
than she did. This is an example of
a. distributive justice.
b. procedural justice.
c. interactional justice.
d. operant justice.
e. equitable justice.
a.distributive justice.
82. The premise that higher level needs can emerge before lower level needs are met is part of
a. Maslow’s theory.
b. ERG theory.
c. process theory.
d. expectancy theory.
e. valence theory.
b.ERG theory.
83. The concept that individuals with a high need for achievement prefer to work on tasks of moderate difficulty is
consistent with
a. ERG Theory.
b. Maslow’s theory.
c. McClelland’s theory.
d. expectancy theory.
e. valence theory.
c.McClelland’s theory.
84. Tony was so concerned that his department’s project be completed on time that he offered all of his employees a
$100 bonus for each day that the project was completed ahead of schedule. This is an example of
a. extinction.
b. valence.
c. variable reinforcement.
d. positive reinforcement.
e. extrinsic reward.
e.extrinsic reward.
85. An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task is known as
a. self-fulfillment.
b. self-respect.
c. self-esteem.
d. self-efficacy.
e. self-starting.
d.self-efficacy.