CHAP12

People who must cope with crime, poverty, substandard housing, and unemployment in their everyday environment often experience:
Chronic Stress
People in the _____ socioeconomic levels of society tend to have the _____ levels of psychological distress, illness, and death. (answer 1, answer 2)
Lowest, Highest
_____ refers to a situation in which a person feels pulled between two or more opposing desires, motives, or goals.
Conflict
Following the strict exercise regimen imposed by his doctor, Mark has to choose between two equally unappealing activities: 30 minutes on the exercise bike or 30 minutes on the stair climbing machine. This example of conflict best illustrates an:
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
Carmen is faced with a situation in which she has to decide between two equally appealing choices: go to Garden State College or go to Parkland State College. This type of conflict is called:
Approach-Approach Conflict
Which of the following types of conflict, generally speaking, produces the highest levels of stress?
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
After three successful weeks on her low-fat diet, Luella goes to the cafeteria for lunch and is torn between sticking to her diet by having steamed vegetables or having one of her favorite high-fat dishes, fettuccine alfredo. Luella is probably experiencing a(n) _____ conflict.
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
Tristan gave an ultimatum to Kelsy, his freedom-loving girlfriend. “Either we get married and settle down, or I’m going to stop seeing you,” he told her. Kelsy became very upset. On the one hand, she really liked Tristan and didn’t want the relationship to end. On the other hand, she wasn’t sure that she was ready to get married. Kelsy is experiencing:
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
Faced with an approach-avoidance conflict, many people:
Are unable to make up their mind
The stress that results from the pressure of adapting to a new culture is called:
Acculturative Stress
The term acculturative stress refers to:
The stress that results from the pressure of adapting to a new culture
When Konya emigrated to the United States he found it very difficult to adapt to the new culture. Konya probably experienced:
Acculturative Stress
When Rashid encountered a new cultural environment she was faced with two fundamental questions: “Should I seek positive relations with the dominant society?” and “Is my original culture of value to me, and should I try to maintain it?” Which of the following is NOT one of the four possible patterns of acculturation that Rashid might adopt? Integration, Assimilation, Acceptance, Separation
Acceptance
As a new immigrant to the United States, Yangtse was faced with two fundamental questions: “Should I seek positive relations with the dominant society?” and “Is my original cultural identity of value to me, and should I try to maintain it?” Yangtse answered yes to both. Yangtse chose:
Integration
When Nishio emigrated to Australia he heartily embraced the new culture, adopting the dress and social values of his new home, and soon gave up his old traditions, customs, and language. Nishio chose:
Assimilation
Elizabeth is leaving the United States to live and work in Japan and is very excited about the change. When Elizabeth arrives and starts work in Japan, she is likely to:
Experience increased levels of stress due to the acculturation process
The Culture and Human Behavior Box described four different patterns of adapting to a new culture. Which pattern of acculturation tends to produce the HIGHEST level of acculturative stress? Integration, Assimilation, Marginalization, Separation
Marginalization
The Culture and Human Behavior Box described four different patterns of adapting to a new culture. Which pattern of acculturation tends to produce the LOWEST level of acculturative stress? Integration, Assimilation, Marginalization, Separation
Integration
Stress can INDIRECTLY undermine health and physical well-being by:
Making people more likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors
After having a particularly stressful week at work, Mick was so preoccupied with his problems as he drove home from work that he didn’t notice that the car in front of him had stopped suddenly. Mick was ticketed for “inattentive driving” by the police officer that investigated the traffic accident. This example illustrates how stress can _____ a person’s health and well-being.
Indirectly affect
Stress can DIRECTLY undermine health and physical well-being by:
Altering body functions that can lead to physical symptoms or illness
A survey of Manhattan residents in the weeks following the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center found that about _____ reported _____ use of alcohol, cigarettes, and/ or marijuana. (Percentage, answer 2)
30 percent, increased
A survey of Manhattan residents in the weeks following the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center found that about 30% of the residents reported:
An increased use of substances (alch, weed, and cigs)
As shown in a bar graph in your textbook, nearly 50% of adults across the United States reported _____ after the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center.
Had sleeping problems
The American physiologist Walter B. Cannon: A) described the fight-or-flight response, which involves the sympathetic nervous
system and the endocrine system. B) along with Richard Lazarus developed the cognitive appraisal model of stress. C) described the three-stage response to prolonged stress called the general adaptation
syndrome. D) conducted research on explanatory style and the role it plays in stress, health, and
illness.
A
As her car spun out of control on an icy road, Mia’s muscles tensed and her blood pressure, heartbeat, and pulse increased dramatically. This rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions is called the:
Fight-or-Flight Response
The _____ response refers to the rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions that prepare people to react to an immediate threat.
Fight-or-Flight
When a large snarling dog threatened Daniel during his regular morning jog, he experienced the classic symptoms of the fight-or-flight response. According to Walter Cannon, Daniel’s response involves both _____ and _____.
The Sympathetic Nervous System and the Endocrine System
When Marcy arrived home she was shocked to see that her house had been burglarized and ransacked, and she was terrified that the burglar might still be in the house. It is very probable that Marcy’s sympathetic nervous system has stimulated her adrenal medulla to secrete hormones called:
Catecholamines
_____ are hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that cause rapid physiological arousal and include adrenaline and noradrenaline.
Catecholamines
According to Walter Cannon, which of the following is the correct sequence involved in the fight-or-flight response to acute stress?
A) hypothalamus, sympathetic nervous system, adrenal medulla, secretion of catecholamines
B) hypothalamus, parasympathetic nervous system, adrenal cortex, secretion of corticosteroids
C) pituitary gland, secretion of catecholamines, parasympathetic nervous system, release of ACTH
D) pituitary gland, release of ACTH, sympathetic nervous system, adrenal medulla, secretion of catecholamines
A) Hypothalamus, Sympathetic Nervous System, Adrenal Medulla, Catecholamines
When stress is prolonged, the hypothalamus signals:
The pituitary glands to release ACTH
The Canadian endocrinologist Hans Selye:
Defined stress as the “nonspecific response to the body to any demand placed on it” and described a response to prolonged stress called the general adaptation syndrome.
Stress can have both direct and indirect effects that undermine physical health and body functions. Which of the following is considered a DIRECT effect of stress?
A) disrupted sleep and other sleep problems
B) increased consumption of coffee, alcohol, and/or tobacco products
C) disrupted concentration and memory problems
D) increased levels of catecholamines and corticosteroids
D. Increased levels of catecholamines and corticosteroids
Walter Cannon is to _____ as Robert Ader is to _____.
fight-or-flight syndrome; psychoneuroimmunology
Abby’s husband was critically injured in a car accident. He survived, but Abby had to care for him at home for several months before he was able to regain normal functioning, which was very stressful for Abby. After he was able to return to work, Abby felt completely exhausted. According to Hans Selye, Abby had probably experienced:
The general adaptation syndrome
As he began his internship in a hospital emergency room, George felt very anxious. Throughout his internship he experienced intense and prolonged stress, did not eat well, and did not get enough sleep. When he successfully completed his internship, he felt completely worn out and came down with a bad case of mononucleosis. George is probably experiencing the:
“exhaustion” phase of the general adaptation syndrome
Nikki, an air traffic controller, experiences prolonged and chronic stress. According to Hans Selye, Nikki is probably experiencing high levels of:
Corticosteroids
Selye’s term for the three-stage progression of physical changes that occur when an organism is exposed to intense and prolonged stress is:
the general adaptation syndrome.
When Carl got to the parking lot, he was distressed to find that his new car had been badly damaged by a hit-and-run driver. At this point, Carl is probably in the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome
Alarm
Shortly after getting over the shock of losing her job as managing director of the Electra Company, Morgan started to actively search for a new job. At this point in time, Morgan had passed through the _____ stage and is now in the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
Alarm, resistance
When Mrs. Anderson had a stroke that left her partly paralyzed and cognitively impaired, her husband took care of her. After four months, Mr. Anderson has adjusted to the daily routine, but he seems tense, and his ability to cope with new stressors is diminished. It is very likely that Mr. Anderson is now in the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, but if the situation gets worse and continues for a prolonged period of time, he may enter the _____ stage.
Resistance, exhaustion
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) In the short run, corticosteroids provide several benefits, helping protect the body against the harm caused by stressors.
B) Corticosteroids reduce inflammation of body tissue and enhance muscle tone in the
heart and blood vessels.
C) Continued high levels of corticosteroids, especially cortisol, can weaken important
body systems, lowering immunity and increasing susceptibility to physical symptoms and illness.
D) Like the catecholamines, the effects of corticosteroids tend to diminish very quickly
and cause no long-lasting problems.
D
The hormones that are released by the adrenal cortex and that play a key role in the body’s response to long-term stressors are called:
Corticosteroids
Brandon came down with viral pneumonia. His body’s immune system will produce _____ to defend him against the infection.
Lymphocytes
The body system that produces specialized white blood cells that defend the body from viruses, bacteria, and tumor cells is called the _____ system.
Immune System
The final exam period was very stressful for Maria, and at the end of the semester she got very sick with mononucleosis. Her body’s _____ will produce _____ to help fight against the virus.
Immune System, Lymphocytes
Robert Ader is to ____, as Hans Selye is to ___
psychoneuroimmunology, general adaptation syndrome
Andy suffered from chronic back pain. After weeks of unsuccessful treatment, Andy’s doctor gave him some pill samples, describing them as a new experimental medication for back pain. In reality, the pills were just sugar pills and contained no medication at all. After a few days, Andy’s backache was much better. Andy’s response to the sugar pills is an example of:
The placebo effect
The Focus on Neuroscience section described a PET-scan study on the placebo effect. What differentiated the two groups of participants in the study?
One group was injected with an opiate painkiller, and the other group was injected with saline solution (a placebo).
The Focus on Neuroscience described a PET-scan study on the placebo effect. What was the main finding of the study?
Both the genuine painkiller and the placebo activated the same brain area and both
relieved pain.
The Focus on Neuroscience described a PET-scan study on the placebo effect. Which of the following was found in the study?
Both the placebo and the opiate painkiller activated a brain area known to contain
many opioid receptors.
The Focus on Neuroscience described a PET-scan study on the placebo effect. One possible implication of the study’s results is that:
placebos have no detectable effect on the brain, but they probably provide pain relief because their administration reduces tension, anxiety, stress, and negative emotions in the person who thinks he is getting an authentic treatment.
The notion that the immune system operated independently of other body systems was challenged by _____ and _____, who demonstrated that the immune system response in rats could be classically conditioned.
Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen
Ader and Cohen’s groundbreaking study demonstrated that:
the immune system response can be classically conditioned
_____ is an interdisciplinary field that studies the interconnections among psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system.
Psychoneuroimmunology
Most psychoneuroimmunologists are likely to share the view that:
there are interconnections among psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system.
Dr. Kelly is a researcher in the interdisciplinary field of psychoneuroimmunology. Like most other specialists in this field, Dr. Kelly would most likely DISAGREE with which of the following statements?
A) The surfaces of lymphocytes contain receptor sites for neurotransmitters and hormones, including catecholamines and cortisol.
B) Lymphocytes themselves produce neurotransmitters and hormones.
C) The central nervous system and the immune system are directly linked.
D) The immune system response cannot be classically conditioned.
D) The immune system cannot be classically conditioned
Mrs. Prouli has been taking care of her husband, who has Alzheimer’s disease, for a number of years. The prolonged stress involved in caring for her husband may:
Result in reduced immune system functioning
Minor everyday stressors such as taking an exam:
can temporarily alter immune system functioning.
In one study on the effects of stress, dental students received one small puncture wound on the roof of their mouth during their summer vacation and a second wound three days before their first major exam during the fall term. What were the findings of this study?
On the average, wounds inflicted just before the major exam took 3 days longer to heal than the wounds inflicted during summer vacation.
Janice Kiecolt-Glaser and Ronald Glaser investigated the effects of rather commonplace stressors such as the numerous exams that medical students have to take each year. They discovered that exposure to such ordinary stressors of life:
adversely affects immune system functioning.
Research by psychologist _____ has conclusively shown that everyday stressors, such as the stress of preparing for exams, can decrease immune system functioning in humans.
Janice Kiecolt-Glaser
Psychologist Sheldon Cohen and his colleagues conducted a carefully controlled study examining the relationship between stress and susceptibility to the common cold. What were the results of this study?
The level of stress that the volunteers reported was very strongly related to their susceptibility to the common cold virus.
In studying the relationship between stress and susceptibility to the common cold, psychologist Sheldon Cohen and his colleagues have found that:
when they are exposed to a cold virus, people who are under chronic stress are much more likely to develop colds than people who are not under chronic stress.
One reason why chronic stress may increase the susceptibility to infection is because chronic stress triggers the secretion of _____, which influence immune system functioning.
Corticosteroids
Your textbook described a research study involving young adults who were under a great deal of stress who were immunized with a vaccine against influenza. Five months after their flu shots, the young adults:
were virtually unprotected against the flu.
Psychological research has consistently shown that having a sense of control over a stressful situation _____ the impact of stressors and _____ feelings of anxiety and
depression.
Reduces, decreases
Mrs. Pedersen lives in a nursing home that allows its residents to make choices about their daily activities and encourages them make decisions that affect their lives. Compared to her friend Mrs. Ghormley, who lives in a nursing home where staff members make all these types of decisions, Mrs. Pedersen is likely to:
be more active, alert, sociable, and healthier.
In an important research study involving elderly nursing home residents, psychologists Judith Rodin and Ellen Langer investigated the:
effects of a sense of personal control on psychological and physical health.
The research by Judith Rodin and Ellen Langer involving elderly nursing home residents demonstrated that:
elderly nursing home residents who have a sense of control over their environment are healthier than elderly nursing home residents without a sense of personal control over their environment.
Lacking a sense of control over stressful events can result in:
an improvement in immune system functioning.
Cross-cultural research found that a heightened sense of personal control was:
associated with lower levels of perceived stress in British participants but not Japanese participants.
When Harry got a failing grade in one of his courses, he decided to talk to his professor about the personal problems he had during the term and discuss the possibility of doing a makeup final exam or writing an extra paper. Harry appears to be reacting to a stressful situation by trying to exercise some personal control. If Harry’s approach is realistic and successful, it is likely to:
enhance his feelings of self-confidence, self-efficacy, and autonomy.
According to psychologist Martin Seligman, people who have a(n) _____ explanatory style use external, unstable, and specific explanations for negative events.
optimistic
According to psychologist Martin Seligman, people who have a(n) _____ explanatory style use internal, stable, and global explanations for negative events.
pessimistic
According to Martin Seligman, a person who reacts to negative events with an optimistic explanatory style uses:
external, unstable, and specific explanations for negative events.
After Lana got a low grade on her first French exam, she told her roommate that she was dropping the course because she wasn’t good at foreign languages and would never be able to figure out French grammar. Lana is best classified as having a pessimistic explanatory style because:
she uses internal, stable, and global explanations for negative events
Ryan was disappointed when he was rejected in his first attempt to get admitted to a very prestigious engineering program. But he told his friends that he thought he would have a better chance next time, especially if he took some additional qualifying courses and raised his GPA. Martin Seligman would say that Ryan has a(n):
optimistic explanatory style
When Karen suggested to Gordy that they go out for coffee on Friday night, Gordy said, “Sorry, I can’t make it Friday, perhaps some other time?” Karen did not suggest another time, but instead thought to herself that she was obviously not very attractive and always said the wrong thing to men. Martin Seligman would say that Karen has a(n):
pessimistic explanatory style.
A study of first-year law students found that the students who had an optimistic outlook:
had stronger immune systems than the students with a pessimistic outlook.
Larry constantly complains about minor health problems, how hard he has to work, and how he is not appreciated by his family. He dislikes most of the people he meets, and no matter what happens to him he is dissatisfied and grumpy. Larry seems to display:
chronic negative emotions.
Anna is almost constantly negative, hostile, and anxious. Based on the psychological studies of people who display chronic negative emotions, Anna:
A) probably experiences more frequent and more intense daily hassles than happier people do.
B) is more likely than happier people to develop a chronic disease, such as heart disease or arthritis.
C) probably reacts with much greater distress to stressful events than happier people do.
D) is likely to experience all of the above.
D
According to cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman, _____ is a behavioral and emotional style characterized by a sense of time urgency, hostility, and competitiveness.
Type A personality
Ken delivers fresh produce to health food stores around the city. Laid back and easygoing,
he loves his job because it allows him to meet people and get daily exercise at the same time. Ken is likely to be classified as having a:
Type B Behavior Pattern
Which one of the following people is most likely to be classified as exhibiting a Type A behavior pattern?
A) Charlie, a very outgoing, sociable, and fun-loving music major
B) Brenda, a quiet, book-loving, introverted librarian
C) Bill, a very ambitious, competitive, hostile, time-conscious real estate developer
D) Clarissa, a hardworking, friendly, and caring psychiatric nurse
C
Barbara is an accountant who works a lot of overtime toward the end of the tax year to finish her clients’ tax returns by the deadline. However, despite these long hours of being under pressure to get the tax returns done on time, Barbara continues to be relaxed and calm. Barbara:
Is showing Type B behavior pattern
Tyler is a very competitive and impatient stockbroker who often gets annoyed over insignificant matters. He has a reputation for being hostile and angry and tends to be suspicious, mistrustful, and to blame others for his losses. Tyler is likely to be classified as having a:
Type A behavior pattern
Fifty-year-old Marvin is a very successful businessman who exhibits all the classic signs of the Type A behavior pattern. He has suffered coronary problems for the last five years but has not slowed his hectic pace. According to current research, the aspect of his Type A behavior that contributes the most to his health problems is his:
Hostility
The main component of the Type A behavior pattern that predicts the development of coronary heart disease is:
Hostility
What has research shown about the relationship between hostility and heart disease?
Hostility levels are positively correlated to heart disease: the higher the level of hostility, the greater the likelihood of developing heart disease.
A number of explanations for how hostility predisposes people to heart disease and other health problems are presented in your textbook. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
A) Hostile people tend to react more intensely than other people to a stressor and experience increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and the production of stress-related hormones.
B) Hostile men and women do not express their anger outwardly, but instead bottle up their emotions and hide their true feelings.
C) Because of their cynical attitudes and aggressive behavior, hostile people experience more frequent and more severe negative life events and daily hassles.
D) Because hostile men and women are prone to get angry more often than others, they also experience stress more frequently.
B
Psychologists and other scientists are cautious in the statements they make about the connection between personality and health for a number of reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons?
A) A person’s health at any given time is influenced by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors.
B) Personality factors might indirectly lead to disease via poor health habits.
C) The vast majority of the studies investigating the role of psychological factors in disease are experimental rather than correlational.
D) It may be that disease influences a person’s emotions, rather than the other way around.
C
One way researchers try to disentangle the relationship between personality and health is by conducting carefully controlled prospective studies. The important aspect of this research approach is that:
an initially healthy group of subjects are assessed on variables thought to be risk factors and are tracked over a period of time.
Studies investigating close relationships and physical health have repeatedly found that:
the lack of social relationships is related to an increased risk of health problems.
The resources provided by other people in times of need, including emotional, tangible, and informational support, are referred to as:
Social Support
Carson is divorced, lives alone, has very few friends, and outside of work he rarely interacts with other people. According to psychological research on social isolation, Carson’s lack of social relationships is correlated with:
poor health and higher death rates.
Which factor has been identified as being as powerful a health risk as smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity?
Social isolation
Which of the following is NOT a potential drawback of social support?
A) When other people are perceived as being judgmental, their presence may increase the individual’s physical reaction to the stressor.
B) Stress may increase when well-meaning friends or -family members offer unwanted or inappropriate social support.
C) Being too helpful and overprotective, especially when dealing with sick people, may undermine self-confidence and slow physical recovery.
D) Individuals who accept social support from others risk being labeled as weak, dependent, or incompetent.
D
Recently, Spencer lost his job, and a long-term relationship ended in a bitter fight. Thinking it might help, Spencer visited his family, but it made him feel worse. The only time he felt better was when he was with the family dog. It is possible that Spencer perceived his family as _____, and the dog as _____.
being judgmental and critical; being nonjudgmental and unconditionally supportive
Helena has a large network of social relationships that is comforting to her in times of need. However, because relationships tend to be reciprocal, Helena has to respond to many demands placed on her by friends and family. According to your textbook, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Helena may find these demands physically and psychologically taxing, especially if any are long-term.
B) Helena will not be affected adversely by this situation.
C) The positive effects of social support always outweigh any potential drawbacks.
D) Compared to people with only a small network of social relationships, Helena is
likely to be relatively free of stress.
A
The “stress contagion effect” refers to:
people becoming upset about negative life events that happen to other people that they care about.
According to your textbook, women tend to be more vulnerable to the problematic aspects of social support. Which of the following factors do NOT contribute to women’s greater vulnerability to the problematic aspects of social support?
A) Women may be more likely to suffer from the stress contagion effect because they tend to have larger and more intimate social networks.
B) Women are more likely to serve as providers of support.
C) Women are less likely to suffer from the stress contagion effect because they tend to have a smaller social network, consisting primarily of immediate family members.
D) Women are more likely to become upset about negative events that happen to their relatives and friends.
C) Women are less likely to suffer from the stress contagion effect because they tend to have a smaller social network, consisting primarily of immediate family members
Whenever any of her friends or relatives have problems and are upset, Gilda gets upset too. This example illustrates:
the stress contagion effect
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Women tend to rely most heavily on the relationship with their spouse for social support.
B) Men are just as likely as women as to experience the stress contagion effect.
C) Along with their spouse, men typically list two or three close male friends as confidants that they rely on for social support.
D) The more extensive social networks of women can have both positive and negative health consequences.
D
State University recently set up a telephone hotline to provide advice, useful suggestions, and information about the resources available on campus for students who are experiencing academic difficulties. What type of support is being provided by the people who staff the State University hotline?
Informational Support
When Sherrie and her husband separated, her best friend Mandy let her stay in her guest room, lent her money, and helped her look for an apartment. This example illustrates a category of social support called:
Tangible Support
When Bernadette first left home to attend college, she felt lonely, isolated, and apprehensive about succeeding in her new academic environment. Bernadette frequently called her best friend Cindy, who was attending college in their home town. Cindy was very supportive, empathetic, and reassuring. Cindy is providing Bernadette with a type of social support?
Emotional Support
When Sabrina tried to talk to her husband Adam about the problems she was having with her boss, Adam interrupted her and said, “You’re getting all upset over nothing. Now, this is what you need to do . . .” and went on to explain to her why her reaction was irrational, how she should be feeling instead, and what she should say and do if the situation ever occurred again. Based on the criteria discussed in the In Focus Box, “Providing Effective Social Support,” how would you evaluate Adam’s attempt to provide social support for Sabrina?
Adam’s response will not help Sabrina, and may even make her feel worse.
Tangible support is to _____ as informational support is to _____.
direct assistance, such as financial aid; helpful suggestions and advice
Which of the following support behaviors is typically perceived as helpful by people under stress?
A) giving advice that the person has not asked for
B) helping them take their minds off their troubles by talking about yourself and your own problems
C) pretending to be cheerful
D) being a good listener and showing concern and interest
D
Imagine that a close friend turns to you for help because of personal problems and high
stress levels. According to the research presented in the textbook, which of the following may NOT be helpful?
A) Be a good listener and show concern and interest.
B) Talk about yourself and your own problems and give advice that was not asked for.
C) Ask questions that encourage the person under stress to express his or her feelings
and emotions.
D) Express understanding about why the person is upset.
B
Robert and Beth are both in their late-30s, married, and have different professional careers. They also have an eight-year-old son named Noah, two cats, a nervous gerbil, and relatives that live in the same city. Based on what you have read in the text, which of the following statements is most likely to be TRUE?
A) Beth is less likely than Robert to be upset by negative events that happen to their relatives.
B) Robert is more likely to rely on his male relatives than Beth for social support when he feels troubled by personal matters.
C) Beth probably has higher cortisol levels than Robert.
D) The health benefits of being married are greater for Robert than they are for Beth.
D
_____ refers to the ways we try to change circumstances, or our interpretations of circumstances, to make them less threatening.
Coping
_____ is primarily aimed at directly changing or managing a threatening or harmful stressor.
Problem-focused coping
When sales were down for the third month in a row, the sales manager called a meeting of all sales staff in order to analyze the situation and attempt to come up with some solutions. This example illustrates:
problem-focused coping.
Faced with the financial and personal problems associated with returning to school as an adult student, Amanda estimated how much she would need to live on, how much time she could devote to working, and how much study time she would need to succeed academically. Amanda is using a(n) _____ coping strategy called _____.
problem-focused; planful problem solving
_____ is primarily aimed at relieving or regulating the emotional impact of a stressful situation.
Emotion-focused coping
When the football coach told the players that they had better start working harder during practice or they would be dropped from the team, he appeared to be using a(n) _____ coping strategy called _____.
problem-focused; confrontive coping
When their basement flooded during a torrential rainstorm, Megan and Logan started making jokes about starting a fish farm in the basement to raise money to replace their ruined possessions. Their use of humor to help cope with the situation is an example of:
emotion-focused coping.
Jasmine is a police detective. To cope with her high level of stress, she goes to aerobic classes and works out in the gym four or five times a week. Jasmine is using a(n) _____ coping strategy called _____.
emotion-focused; escape-avoidance
Whenever Caleb gets stressed out or upset, he tends to drink excessively in order to “drown his sorrows.” Caleb is using a maladaptive form of an emotion-focused coping strategy called:
escape-avoidance.
Stephanie has a high pressure job. Every day after work, she goes for a five-mile run because it takes her mind off her job and focuses it on other things. Stephanie is using an emotion-focused coping strategy called:
Escape-avoidance
Jason frequently exceeds his line of credit at the bank and runs up large debts on his credit card. Rather than cutting back on his spending, he tends to fantasize about winning the state lottery. Jason is using a form of emotion-focused coping called:
Escape-avoidance
When the stressor is severe and chronic and really needs immediate attention, escape- avoidance behaviors can be:
counterproductive
When Nathan was having personal and academic problems while attending college, he talked to his family and friends, asking for advice and help. It would appear that Nathan is using a(n) _____ coping strategy called _____.
emotion-focused; seeking social support
Your textbook identifies several emotion-focused coping strategies. Which of the following is NOT an emotion-focused coping strategy?
A) distancing
B) escape-avoidance
C) positive reappraisal
D) approach-avoidance
D
compared to men, women are more likely to ____ under stressful circumstances.
Seek out Social Support
According to research presented in the In Focus box on gender differences in responding to stress, when they come home after a stressful day at work, fathers are more likely to _____ but mothers are more likely to ____.
initiate conflicts with or withdraw from family members; be more nurturing toward
their children
According to psychologist Shelley Taylor, women respond to stress with a behavioral pattern she calls:
Tend-and-Befriend
In the In Focus box on gender differences in responding to stress features, psychologist Shelley Taylor argues that men and women respond to stress with a fundamentally different behavioral pattern. What evidence does she cite to support her idea?
Women are more likely to use emotion-focused coping strategies than men.
The In Focus box on gender differences in responding to stress presents Shelley Taylor’s proposal that women “tend-and-befriend” in response to stress. In this model, “tend” refers to:
taking cover and protecting offspring.
The In Focus box on gender differences in responding to stress presents Shelley Taylor’s proposal that women “tend-and-befriend” in response to stress. In this model, “befriend” refers to:
seeking social support, protection, and resources from others
Which of the following behaviors would be an example of the “tend-and-befriend”
response as described by health psychologist Shelley Taylor?
Lacey grabbed her young daughter and hid under a desk when she heard a gunshot,
shouts, and screams in the hallway of the courthouse building
The In Focus box on gender differences in responding to stress presents Shelley Taylor’s idea that women respond to stress with a different behavioral pattern than men. According to Taylor, which hormone might be partly responsible for women’s behavioral response to stress?
oxytocin
Which perspective does Shelley Taylor cite in support of her “tend-and-befriend” model of stress response?
The evolutionary theory
Jeremy is an ambulance driver and a paramedic. He and some of his co-workers sometimes appear to do their job in a detached, depersonalized, but nevertheless, efficient manner. Jeremy and his co-workers are using _____ to some degree to help them deal with distressing situations.
distancing
During particularly busy and stressful shifts, Kyle and some of his coworkers in the morgue often find themselves making jokes and facetious remarks among themselves. Making jokes about a stressful situation is a form of:
distancing
One of the most constructive emotion-focused coping strategies is _____ because the person who uses this tactic not only tries to minimize the negative emotional aspects of the situation, but also tries to create positive meaning by focusing on personal growth.
positive reappraisal
Although it is obvious to most of Bernie’s friends and family that he drinks too much, his wife Betsy refuses to admit that he has a drinking problem. She insists that he is a moderate drinker who has the occasional glass of red wine for medicinal purposes. In this situation it is possible that Betsy is using _____.
denial
At first, Greg was despondent when he didn’t make the Olympic team. Upon reflection, however, he decided that the training he did and the knowledge he gained from competing against the best in the country were beneficial experiences that would help him in his personal life as well as in future competitions. Greg is using an emotion-focused coping strategy called:
positive reappraisal
Most people use multiple coping strategies in stressful situations. In the initial stages we often rely on _____ to help us step back emotionally from a problem, but once we’ve regained our emotional equilibrium, we may rely more on _____ to identify potential solutions to the situation.
emotion-focused coping strategies; problem-focused coping strategies
Controlling personal reactions is to _____ as exerting control over the situation is to _____.
collectivistic cultures; individualistic cultures
Regarding coping strategies for dealing with stressful situations, collectivistic cultures are to _____ as individualistic cultures are to _____.
emotion-focused coping strategies; problem-focused coping strategies
Two Japanese proverbs are: “The true tolerance is to tolerate the intolerable” and “Flexibility can control rigidity.” In the context of coping with stressful circumstances, what coping strategy is emphasized by these proverbs?
emotion-focused coping
Compared to physically inactive people, physically fit people ______
are less physiologically reactive to stressors and produce lower levels of stress hormones.
How do stimulant drugs such as caffeine or nicotine affect people’s ability to handle stress?
Stimulants like caffeine and nicotine heighten the negative physiological effects of stress by increasing physiological arousal.