The factors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management’s ability to build and maintain successful relationships with target customers.
Marketers have two aptitudes
1. They have disciplined methods-marketing research and marketing intelligence-for collecting information about the marketing environment.
2. They spend more time in customer and competitor environments.
The marketing environment consists of a
microenvironment and macroenvironment.
The actors close to the company that affect its ability to serve its customers-the company, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customer markets, competitors, and public.
The larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment-demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, and cultural forces.
Major actors in the marketer’s microenvironment include other company departments, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, competitors, various publics, and customers, which combine to make up the company value delivery network.
Marketing management takes other company groups into account-groups such as top management, finance, research and development, purchasing, and accounting. All of these interrelated groups form the internal environment.
These groups share responsibility for understanding customer needs and creating customer value.
form an important link in the company’s overall customer value delivery network.
They provide the resources needed by the company to produce its goods and services.
Most marketers today treat their suppliers as partners in creating and delivering customer value.
Firms that help the company to promote, sell, and distribute its goods to final buyers.
Include resellers, physical distribution firms, marketing services agencies, and financial intermediaries.
Reseller include wholesalers and retailers who buy and resell merchandise.
Physical distribution firms help the company stock and move goods from their points of origin to their destinations.
Marketing services agencies are the marketing research firms, advertising agencies, media firms, and marketing consulting firms.
Financial intermediaries include banks, credit companies, insurance companies, and etc.
To be successful, a company must provide greater value and satisfaction over its competitors.
Must gain strategic advantage by positioning their offerings strongly against competitors’ offerings in the minds of consumers.
Any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on an organization’s ability to achieve its objectives.
7 Types of publics
banks, investment analysts, and stockholders
newspaper, magazines, television stations, and blogs an other Internet media.
Marketers must consult the company’s lawyers on issues of product safety, truth in advertising, and other matters.
such as consumer organizations, environmental groups, minority groups, and others.
neighborhood residents and community organizations.
A company needs to be concerned about the general public’s attitude towards it products and activities.
The public’s image of the company can affect consumer buying decision.
workers, managers, volunteers, and the board of directors
most important factors in the company’s microenvironment.
The aim of the entire value delivery network is to serve target customers and create strong relationships with them.
5 Types of customer markets:
consist of individuals and households that buy good and services for personal consumption.
buy goods and services for further processing or use in their production processes.
buy good and services to resell at a profit.
consist of government agencies that buy goods and services to produce public services or transfer the goods and services to others who need them.
buyers in other countries, including consumers, producers, resellers, and governments.
The study of human populations in terms of size, density location, age, gender, race, occupation, and other statistics.
Economic factors that affect consumer purchasing power and spending patterns.
Nations vary greatly in their levels and distribution of income.
Economic factors like recession can have a dramatic effect on consumer spending and buying behavior.
Marketers should pay attention to both income distribution and income levels.
Changes in major economic variables, such as income, cost of living, interest rate, and so forth, have a large impact on the marketplace.
constitute of rich markets for many different kinds of goods.
consume most of their own agricultural and industrial output and offer few market opportunities. For example, Japan.
can offer outstanding marketing opportunities for the right kinds of products.
The physical environment and the natural resources that are needed as inputs by marketers or that are affected by marketing activities.
Unexpected happenings in the physical environment-anything from weather to natural disasters-can affect companies and their marketing strategies.
For example, earthquake, tsunami, and flood
Developing strategies and practices that create a world economy that the planet can support indefinitely.
The Technological Environment
The Political and Social Environment
Forces that create new technologies, creating new product and market opportunities.
New technologies create new markets and opportunities.
Laws, government agencies, and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals in a given society.
Well-conceived regulations can encourage competition and ensure fair markets for goods and services.
Business legislation has been created for a number of reasons:
To protect companies from each other; laws are passed to define and prevent unfair competition.
To protect consumers from unfair business practices.
To protect the interests of society against unrestrained business behavior.
Institutions and other forces that affect society’s basic values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors.
values are passed on from parents to children and are reinforced by schools, churches, businesses, and government
values are more open to change. For example, believing in marriage is a core belief; believing that people should get married early in life is a secondary belief.
People’s Views of Themselves
People vary in their emphasis on serving themselves versus serving others.
People use products, brands, services as a means of self-expression, and they buy products and services that match their views of themselves.
People’s Views of Others
People’s attitudes toward and interactions with others shift over time.
Digital technologies have launched an era calls “mass mingling”
Consumers are tapping into their network of friends, fans, and followers to discover, discuss, and purchase goods and services in more sophisticated ways.