chap 2

Strategic planning,
___________ ____________ is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources. _________ _______looks beyond day-to-day activities and focuses on a horizon that is 3, 5, 10, or more years in the future.
SWOT analysis
Strategic planning starts with a management review called a _________ _________.
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
SWOT analysis stand for ________, __________, ___________, and _________.
mission statement
A document or statement that describes the company for its stakeholders and briefly states the company’s overall purpose, products, services, and values.
Some managers believe that a firm’s ________ _______ should contain an inspirational message to its stakeholders.
critical success factors
_________ __________ __________ are vital objectives that must be achieved for the company to fulfill its mission.
business case
the term ________ _________ refers to the reasons, or justification, for a proposal. A _______ ________ should be comprehensive,
systems request
The starting point for most projects is called a __________ ___________, which is a formal way of asking for IT support. A _______ ________might propose enhancements for an existing system, the correction of problems, the replacement of an older system, or the development of an entirely new information system that is needed to support a company’s current and future business needs.
encryption,biometric devices
2.A system must have effective controls to ensure that data is secure and accurate. Some common security controls include passwords, various levels of user access, and _________ , or coding of data to keep it safe from unauthorized users. Hardware-based security controls include __________ _______ that can identify a person by a retina scan or by mapping a facial pattern.
electronic product code,RFID tags
Some industry experts predict that bar code technology will be overshadowed in the future by _______ _______ _______ (_____) technology that uses ________ ______ to identify and monitor the movement of each individual product, from the factory floor to the retail checkout counter
just-in-time ( JIT )
The exchange or delivery of information when and where it is needed. For example, just-in-time inventory systems rely on computer-to-computer data exchange to minimize unnecessary inventory.
EDI also enables ____-__-_____ ( ____ ) inventory systems, as shown in Figure 2-11, which rely on computer-to-computer data exchange to minimize unnecessary inventory. The purpose of a ____ system is to provide the right product at the right place at the right time
customer relationship management ( CRM )
Many companies implement ___________ _________ ________ ( _____ ) systems that integrate all customer-related events and transactions, including marketing, sales, and customer service activities.
electronic proof of delivery ( EPOD )
One of the newest RFID applications is called ________ ________ __ ________( _____ ). Using EPOD, a supplier uses RFID tags on each crate, case, or shipping unit to create a digital shipping list. The customer receives the list and scans the incoming shipment.
business case analysis
________ ________ ______ involves consideration of project reasons, costs, benefits, and risks. At the end of the preliminary investigation, if the project is approved, it can be planned, scheduled, monitored and controlled, and reported upon.
systems review committee,computer resources committee .
In most organizations, the IT department receives more systems requests than it can handle. Many organizations assign responsibility for evaluating systems requests to a group of key managers and users. Many companies call this group a _________ _________ ________ or a _________ ________ ________
feasibility 実行できること,可能性.
a systems request must pass several tests, called a ________ study, to see whether it is worthwhile to proceed further.
operational feasibility, technical feasibility, economic feasibility, and schedule feasibility.
a feasibility study uses four main yardsticks to measure a proposal: ________ feasibility, ________ feasibility, _______ feasibility, and ________ feasibility.
Operational feasibility
________ _________ means that a proposed system will be used effectively after it has been developed. If users have difficulty with a new system, it will not produce the expected benefits. Operational feasibility depends on several vital issues.
Technical feasibility
__________ ________ refers to the technical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system.
Economic feasibility,total cost of ownership
2._______ ________ means that the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs usually considered the _________ _______ __ __________(____) , which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs.
Tangible benefits 触れて感知できる, 実体的な, 有形の
__________ ________ are benefits that can be measured in dollars.
Intangible benefits
_________ _________ are advantages that are difficult to measure in dollars but are important to the company. Examples of intangible benefits include the following:

A user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction
A sales tracking system that supplies better information for marketing decisions
A new Web site that enhances the company’s image You also must consider the development timetable, because some benefits might occur as soon as the system is operational, but others might not take place until later.

Schedule feasibility
_________ ___________ means that a project can be implemented in an acceptable time frame. When assessing schedule feasibility, a systems analyst must consider the interaction between time and costs.
discretionary 任意の,自由裁量の. projects,nondiscretionary {mandatory} projects
2.Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called _________ ______. Projects where no choice exists are called _________ _________ . Creating a new report for a user is an example of a ___________ _______; adding a report required by a new federal law is an example of a ________ ____________.
preliminary investigation
A systems analyst conducts a ________ _________ to study the systems request and recommend specific action.
Preliminary Investigation
Step 1: Understand the Problem or Opportunity
Step 2: Define the Project Scope and Constraints
Step 3: Perform Fact-Finding
Step 4: Analyze Project Usability, Cost, Benefit, and Schedule Data
Step 5: Evaluate Feasibility
Step 6: Present Results and Recommendations to Management
fish-bone diagram,Ishikawa diagram
A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a _____-______ ________ , or ________ ________ , as shown in Figure 2-19. A fishbone diagram is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline. When using a fishbone diagram, an analyst first states the problem and draws a main bone with sub-bones that represent possible causes of the problem.
project scope
Determining the _________ ________ means defining the specific boundaries, or extent, of the project. For example, a statement that, payroll is not being produced accurately is very general, compared with the statement overtime pay is not being calculated correctly for production workers on the second shift at the Yorktown plant.
project creep
Projects with very general scope definitions are at risk of expanding gradually, without specific authorization, in a process called ______ ________. To avoid this problem, you should define _________ ________as clearly as possible.
constraint 強制,圧 迫; 束縛.
A __________ is a requirement or condition that the system must satisfy or an outcome that the system must achieve. A _________ can involve hardware, software, time, policy, law, or cost.
Pareto chart
Systems analysts use many techniques to locate the source of a problem. For example, the _______ _________is a widely used tool for visualizing issues that need attention.
XY chart, scatter diagram
2.The ____ _________ , sometimes called a _______ _________ , is another problem-solving tool. Often, an analyst looks for a correlation between two variables

Your fact-finding should have included a review of user needs, requirements, and expectations. When you analyze this data, you should look for areas that might present problems for system users and how they might be resolved. Because operational feasibility means that a system will be used effectively, this is a vital area of concern.


The fact-finding data should identify the hardware, software, and network resources needed to develop, install, and operate the system. With this data, you can develop a checklist that will highlight technical costs and concerns, if any.


Using the fact-finding data, you can apply the financial analysis tools described in Part C of the Systems Analyst’s Toolkit to assess feasibility. The cost-benefit data will be an important factor for management to consider. Also, a cost estimate for the project development team will be built into the project management plan.


The fact-finding data should include stakeholder expectations regarding acceptable timing and completion dates. As mentioned previously, often a trade-off exists between a project’s schedule and its costs. For example, compressing a project schedule might be possible, but only if the budget is increased accordingly. The schedule data will be incorporated into the project plan in the form of task durations and milestones.

case for action
The final task in the preliminary investigation is to prepare a report to management, and possibly deliver a presentation, as shown in Figure 2-25. The report includes an evaluation of the systems request, an estimate of costs and benefits, and a _______ _____ ________, which is a summary of the project request and a specific recommendation.