which one of the following best describes the purpose of multicultural education
it provides equal education opportunities to all students
Each of the following is a major component or element of culture except
skin color
which one of the following provides the best description of curriculum-based measurement
testing the uses actual instructional material
tolerance is best described as
an appreciation and valuing of difference
academic instruction is one of the two primary purposes of education. The other is
An IFSP refers to an
individualized family service plan
each of the following statements about parental adjustment and stress is true except
the degree of stress is strongly related to the severity of the child’s disability.
components of the family systems theory include each of the following except
characteristics of the neighborhood
The degree to which an individual family member is free to act independently of other family member is
an effective strategy in developing positive relationships with parents is for teachers to
contact as soon as possible at the beginning of the school year.
Which one of the following components is part of the most recent American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) definition of Intellectual dabilities?
significiate limitations in Intellectual functioning
Claudia is a third grader with intellectual disabilities. She has thick epicntnal folds in the corner of her eyes, small stature, decreased muscle tone, speckling of the iris of the eye, a small oral cavity, a short broad hands with a single palmar crease. These characterisitcs are typical of
down syndrome
the ability to keep information in mind while simultaneously doing another cognitive task is
working memory
As a result of the emphasis on inclusion (FAPE in LRE), an increasingly frequent educational placement for students with intellectual disabilities is
a general education classroom
Results from the Perry Preschool Project the Chicago Child-Parent Center Program and the Abecedarian Project Program indicate that
early intervention can reduce the rate of intellectual disabilities
dyslexia refers to a severe impairment in the ability to
According to the federal definition, specific learning disability is a disorder that may include such conditions as the following EXCEPT
emotional disturbance
Students with learning disabilities have
a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in language, the ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or calculate math
which poses the most difficulty for most children with learning disabilities
A cognitive teaching method in which the teacher-student relationship is similar to that of an expert and an apprentice and in which the student gradually assumes the role of co-instructor for brief periods is
reciprocal teaching
The most significant characteristic of exceptional learners is
At present about how many students in the US have received special education
over 6 million
Leslie is enrolled in a general education classroom, but receives instruction with a special education classroom for an hour a day. What type of service does Leslie receive?
she receive resource room service
The key to improving special education is
exceptional instruction
Schools must provide an individulalized program for each student who is eligible for special education. This means that
An education plan must be written for each student with a disability
The legal term about placement of exceptional children in as typical environment as meets their needs is
least restrictive environment
Labels may assist people without disabilities in being more tolerant of those with disabilities by
providing explanations for differences in appearance or behavior
Bill is a student with low vision. His teacher provides him with a set of large type notes at the beginning of each lecture. This is an example of
The concept of transition involves more than just employment. It has a broad emphasis to include
other adult outcomes such as independent living and community asjustment
A process in which a student’s response to scientific research-based intervention is determined is
response to intervention (RTI)
The tendency to repeat the same behaviors over and over again is called
The ability to delay a response, to interrupt an ongoing response if it is inappropriate, and/or to protect a response from distracting or competing stimuli is
behavioral inhibition
Which of the following statements about Ritalin is true?
Ritalin is not effective for about 30% of the people who take it.
Which statement about the brains of people with ADHD is true?
Some areas of the brain are larger in people with ADHD compared to those without disabilities.
Each of the following is an intervention recommended by Cruickshank for teaching students with ADHD EXCEPT
“thinking aloud” modeled by the teacher
The terminology proposed by the National Health and Special Education Coalition in 1990 was
emotional or behavioral disorder
The Federal definition of E/BD has been most widely criticized for its exclusion of children with
social maladjustment
Two broad dimensions of behavior disorders are
externalizing and internalizing
Schizophrenia is associated with all of the following problems except
epileptic seizures
what percentage of the school-aged population exhibits serious and persistent emotional/behavioral problems, according to credible studies in the U.S. and other countries?
6% to 10%
In the majority of cases, the cause of E/BD is
A biologically determined behavioral style is a
Despite problems in defining E/BD, most children with severe E/BD are easily recognized because
their behavior attracts immediate attention
On standardized achievement tests, most students with E/BD perform
below grade level
The most common problem exhibited by children with E/BD are
conduct disorders
All credible conceptual models of education have two objectives. They are to
control misbehavior and teach academic and social skills
The placement of individuals with E/BD in the general education classroom is secondary to
the need for appropriate education and safety
Increasingly, researchers recognize that problem behavior occurs less frequently in the classroom when
the teacher is offering effective instruction
Common patterns of behavior that signal problems in preschool are
frequent conflicts with and aloofness from others
Tad is a 15-year old youth with a long-standing history of school failure and serious behavioral offenses. He is currently in prison and receives no special educational service. A likely reason why Tad is not receiving services is that
he is considered “socially maladjusted” and therefore is not eligible for services
Two broad dimensions of emotional/behavioral disorders are
externalizing and internalizing
causes of emotional or behavioral disorders may include
all of the above
Two or more disabilities in the same individual is
Strategies that work from early intervention through transition balance academic and social skills. These strategies include
all the above
Authors of the textbook emphasize the importance of integrated services for students with emotional and behavioral disorder
special education, family-oriented services, psychotherapy or counseling, vocational training
someone who exhibits echolalia
repeats what he or she hears
executive functions include
all the above–self-regulation, working memory, ability to plan ahead
effective educators of students with autism emphasize behavioral psychology in natural settings and in natural interactions
which of the following is true about autism spectrum disorder
causes of autism spectrum disorder are neurological , not interpersonal
children with Asperger Syndrome generally have
average or above average intelligence, focusing their intellectual pursuits into intense preoccupation in narrow areas
asperger identified children who had
average intelligence but channeled their intellectual pursuits into obsessive pre occupational in narrow awareness
each of the following is true of the APA definition of autism spectrum disorder EXCEPT
it is divided into the main areas of social communication impairments and repetitive/restricted behaviors
according to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, how many people have an autism spectrum disorder
at least 1 out of 88, and perhaps as many as 1 out of 50
The best scientific evidence available indicates that the dramatic increase in prevalence statistics for autism is due to each of the following EXCEPT
widespread use of vaccinations for babies
cold, unresponsive mothers
are no longer viewed by scientists as a cause for autism
which statement about the causes of autism spectrum disorder is true
Scientists have provided strong evidence that the cause is neurological
Neurological research that involves the brain and head size of people with autism strongly suggests that for many
their brains grow suddenly and excessively early inline
The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that screening of children for autism spectrum can begin by the age of
9 months
Neuroimaging research on persons with autism indicates that
neuronal underconnecitity is evident
A mixing of sensory or cognitive systems whereby stimulation of one elicits stimulation of the other is
central coherence refers to
bringing order and meaning to information by perceiving it as a meaningful whole rather than as disparate parts
functional behavioral assessments is used to reduce or eliminate negative behaviors. The purposes the behaviors serve for a person are
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) focuses on
teaching to more actively initiate requests
Each of the following is considered to be an essential feature of effective educational programs for preschool children with autism spectrum disorders EXCEPT
active engagement in intense instructional programming for at least five hours per week
in many ways, outcomes for persons with more severe autism spectrum disorders are similar to those with
intellectual disabilities
Which of the following is NOT an aspect of communication
communicative fluctuation
Language disorders
involve violations of language rules
Approximately what fraction of children who are identified for special education receives services primarily for speech or language disorders
Which one of the following is the best example of a language variation
African American English
Language abilities are basic to
hearing impairment, intellectual disabilities, traumatic brain injury, autistic spectrum disorder, a learning disability
Which theoretical perspective on language disorders applies to the following statement: Language disorders are a breakdown in ability to relate effectively to one’s environment, and the natural environment can sometimes be arranged to teach and support more effective interaction.
social interaction
language disorders are generally classified according to two dimensions
domain and etiology
If a child exhibits language delay at 2 years of age
chances are 50/50 that he or she will continue to have language problems throughout his or her school years
which one of the following is an articulation disorder
possible causes of voice disorders include all of the following except
chicken pox
the most common fluency disorder is
the primary role of the classroom teacher is to facilitate development of which aspects of language
dynamic assessment
involves progress monitoring using a cycle of teaching, followed by testing, and then reteaching
A strategy to teach functional language skills in the natural environment
milieu teaching
which condition reduces the effectiveness of strategy training for adolescents with speech and language disorders
poor reading skills
encoding, or sending messages, is referred to as
expressive language
decoding, or understanding messages, is referred to as
receptive language
Authors of the textbook offer the following suggestion(s) for talking with students
All the above
Milieu teaching is
intervention in contexts in which children use language for typical social interaction
Select the correct statement
Phonological disorders are indicative of aphonia
From the physiological perspective, distinction between “deaf” and “hard of hearing” is based on
decibel levels detected
According to the U.S. Department of education, what percentage of students is identified as deaf or hard of hearing
The most important organ for hearing is the
which of the following is assessed in a typical hearing exam
detection of sounds at different frequency levels
the most frequent viral cause of deafness in newborns is
congenital cytomegalovirus
When performance tests, rather than verbal tests, are used with people who are hearing impaired
there is no difference in IQ between those who are deaf and those who are hearing
Among students who are deaf, those who achieve the highest levels of literacy tend to have
parents who are deaf and use ASL
Many members of the deaf community believe that inclusive educational practices are
eroding the culture values of the Deaf culture
The auditory-verbal approach encourages children with hearing impairment to
use their residual hearing
the total communication approach uses
oral and manual communication
The rationale behind a bicultural-bilingual approach is
to provide a foundation in ASL to serve as a basis for learning English
FM systems are used in conjunction with hearing aids to
amplify sounds
Many in the Deaf community believe that residential schools for children who are deaf are necessary to
perpetuate the deaf culture and use d ASL
The focus of early intervention for children with hearing impairments is in
language development
Students who are deaf who do not go onto postsecondary training may face increased obstacles to employment in the future because
the manual trades for which they have been traditionally prepared are disappearing
Many of the problems that people with hearing impairments have in school are due primarily to deficiencies in
the most important organ for hearing is the
otitis media is a/an
middle ear infection
when performance tests, rather than verbal tests, are used,
there s no difference in intelligence between those who are deaf and those who are hearing
the total communication approach utilizes
oral and manual communication
Which of the following is a way that Still’s cases were similar to today’s population of persons with ADHD
Many had average intelligence
Which aspect of persons described as “hyperactive and distractible” did Werner and Strauss’s research examine
figure-ground confusion
According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, what is the estimate for the percentage of school-age children with ADHD
7% to 9%
Students with ADHD receive special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities ACT (IDEA) in which category
other health impaired
The basal ganglia and cerebellum are responsible for
coordination and control of motor behavior
Behavioral inhibition involves
the ability to interrupt an ongoing response in order to adjust to task demands and the ability to delay a response
Compared to students with other disabilities, students with ADHD
are more disliked by their peers
ADHD has been frequently shown to coexist with each of the following EXCEPT
intellectual disabilities
All of the following are suggestions for teaching students with ADHD EXCEPT
providing a nurturing environment and teaching style that is “child-centered”
In contingency-based self-management, the “contingency” is usually a type of
result in release the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, thus enabling the brain’s executive functions to operate more normally
Research on the effects of Ritalin show each of the following EXCEPT
it should be prescribed at the first sign of a behavior problem
Momentary time sampling
involves conducting brief observations and collecting data on a specific set of behaviors at predetermined time intervals
diagnosis of young children with ADHD is particularly difficult because
Diagnosis of young children with ADHD is particularly difficult because
Each of the following conclusions about adults with ADHD have been documented EXCEPT that
they have fewer marital problems
Which definition(s) of earning disabilities or learning disorders include(s) mention of neurological factors being a factor or possible factor
Federal definition, NJCLD definition, APA definition
What method of identifying students as learning disabled for special education in the public schools is growing in popularity
response to Intervention
In a typical school of a thousand students, about how many students with learning disabilities would you expect to find
Research using neuroimaging suggests that some cases of learning disability are caused by
structural and functional differences in the brain
John, Jim, and Ann are fifth grade students with learning disabilities. Which one of the following statements best illustrates the concept of interindividual differences
John has problems with math, whereas Ann has problems with reading
When writing creatively, students with learning disabilities tend to
use less-complex sentence structures that their peers do
Which of the following is highly associated with reading comprehension
reading fluency
What percent of children with learning disabilities do recent estimates indicate also have attention problems
10% to 25%
Which one of the following problems best illustrates difficulty in metacognition
Oscar neglects to slow down when reading a difficult passage
A method in which assistance is provided to students when they are first learning tasks, then gradually reduced until the students do the tasks independently is
scaffolded instruction
Repeated readings is a technique specifically used to improve
reading fluency
All of the following are features of Direct Instruction EXCEPT
Student- centered lessons
An informal reading inventory is used primarily to
plan instructional interventions
Rather than talking about identification of learning disabilities at the preschool level, educators emphasize
In addition to a transition plan, federal law now requires that schools develop a(n)
summary of performance
In general, people who are blind
lean to make better use of acuity in their other senses
The cause(s) of visual impairments that primarily affect(s) children include(s)
all the above
The lower achievement scores of students who are blind or who have low vision are most likely due to
lack of exposure to braille or low expectations
When guiding a person who is blind
let the person take your arm and walk slightly behind you
The educational placement for students who are blind or with low vision that provides the most integration with children without disabilities
general education with an itinerant teacher
Even though he has visual acuity of 20/20, Jeff is considered legally blind. This is possible if he has
severely restricted vertical and/or horizontal vision
For educational purposes, individuals are considered “blind” if they
need to use Braille or aural methods
The prevalence of school-aged children considered visually impaired by federal government is
much lower than the percentage of older adults who are visually impaired
The structure in the eye that refines and changes the focus of the light rays is the
Janice is described as being able to detect some objects in the environment when they are fully lit. This is an example of a skill a vision teacher might note when performing a
functional vision assessment
The leading cause of visual impairment in children is
cortical visual impairment
Most professionals now agree that the intelligence of people with blindness
can’t be compared directly to that of people with sight
The lower achievement scores of students who are blind or who have low vision is most likely due to
lack of exposure to Braille or low expectations
In people with blindness, stereotypic behaviors refer to
repetitive movements such as body rocking
Approximately what percentage of school-age children use Braille as a primary reading method?
Use of compressed speech enables students with blindness to
listen to recorded texts at a faster rate
An advantage of using guide dogs is that
they can be a safeguard against walking into dangerous situations
Residential institutions remain a relatively popular means of service delivery because they
offer a number of specialized services in one place
Professionals who work in early intervention programs for infants who are blind often recommend that initial efforts focus on
mobility skills
Each of the following is an accommodation that can be made on the job for those who are blind or who have low vision EXCEPT
more time off
Each of the following statements about the category of students referred to as having severe and multiple disabilities is true EXCEPT
The majority of them can be helped with non-invasive surgery
Less than 1% of
the population are considered to have severe an multiple disabilities
Each of the following is a feature of definitions of TBI EXCEPT
injury to the brain can be caused by a genetic condition
Carl was 3 years old when he acquired TBI. Which of the following was the most likely cause of his brain injury?
He fell off the counter in his home
CHARGE syndrome, Usher syndrome, and Down syndrome are
genetic/chromosomal syndromes known to be associated with deaf-blindness
A condition in which a child s born with an abnormally shaped pupil and/or abnormalities of the retina or optic nerve nerve is
An inherited syndrome of deaf-blindness characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa is
usher syndrome
Most authorities agree that the biggest obstacle faced by persons with deaf-blindness is
In addressing the needs of students with deaf-blindness, to principles that practitioners and parents should emphasize are
direct instruction and structured routines
Touching the hands or face of a student who is deaf-blind
is often an effective way to communicate
An adaptation that may be used by a person who is deaf-blind to communicate with the public is
assistance cards
Madeline is 5 years old and has relatively normal cognitive skills. Her mother told her to pick up her stuffed bear and put it away. Madeline threw herself to the ground and began kicking and screaming. Madeline’s mom put the bear away herself, telling Madeline,”OK, OK, calm down.” Madeline quickly ended her tantrum and returned to playing. Which statement is true?
The mother’s behavior reinforced the tantrum behavior
Positive behavioral intervention and support involves
identifying alternative, acceptable ways to communicate through teaching more appropriate behaviors and/or changing the environment to reduce the likelihood of promoting the undesirable behavior.
Each of the following is considered a criterion essential for early intervention programs in special education EXCEPT
single-service orientation
Each of the following is an example of vocational training that would likely occur in elementary school EXCEPT
volunteering at different jobs in the community
Brain damage caused by internal compression, stretching, or other shearing motion of neural tissue within the head is a/an
closed head injury
select characteristics that are essential features of appropriate education for students with TBI
all the above
Most authorities agree that the biggest obstacle faced by persons with deaf-blindness is
_____ includes manual or electronic means by which a nonverbal person may express wants and needs, share information, engage in social closeness, or manage social etiquette
augmentative or alternative communication
repeated physical self-abuse, such as biting, scratching, poking oneself, and head banging
self-injurious behavior
impairments that a child is born with are referred to as
congenital anomalies
a condition that becomes more and more severe over time is
neuromotor impairments are caused by injury to
the brain and spinal cord
cerebral palsy is
a nonprogressive disorder
abrupt, involuntary movements and difficulty in maintaining balance is known as
choreoathetoid movements
The intelligence of children with cerebral palsy is
difficult to assess due to difficulties in perception, movement, or response speed
All of the following are common causes of seizures EXCEPT
high blood pressure
People with spinal bifida
are at risk for having learning disabilities
Catheterization is necessary for individuals with
lack of bladder control
A lung disease characterized by episodic inflammation or obstruction of the air passages such that the person has difficulty breathing is
For most children with physical disabilities and other health impairments, a common cause of academic difficulties is
erratic school attendance
The greatest problem with using technology for people with physical disabilities is
accurately evaluating them to determine what would be most useful
which of the following is likely to be the least concern of early intervention for children with disabilities
improving access to public buildings
in addition to communication, teachers of preschool children with physical disabilities should concentrate on
using proper positioning and handling skills
Supported employment is a situation in which a person with a disability becomes a regular employee, performs a valued function in a regular work setting, and
receives fair pay
The primary distinguishing characteristics of children with physical disabilities are
physical or health problems
select the accurate response about intellectual functioning of individuals with cerebral palsy
all the above
all the following procedures should be done if a student has a seizure in school except
inserting a object between the child’s teeth
an illness or condition that is ongoing and does not resolve even with medical treatment is
An increasingly common lung disease characterized y episodic inflammation or obstruction of air passages is
Characteristics of giftedness include
all the above
The terminology for an individual who has both a disability and a special gift or talent is
twice exceptional
Additional experience provided to students without placing them in a higher grade is
synthetic giftedness
involves insight, intuition, creativity, or adeptness at coping with novel situations
Students who are disadvantaged by economic needs, racial discrimination, disabilities, or gender bias are often overlooked in programs for gifted and talented students.
Today, as compared to several years ago, authorities recommend
developing talents of all students, with less attention to those who might be gifted.
Definitions of giftedness are shaped to a large extent by
cultural beliefs
What services are mandated by federal law for students who are gifted?
None; services are not required by federal law
Federal reports and legislation have assumed that the prevalence of giftedness in the school population is about
3% to 5%
according to research cited in the text, what is the relationship between giftedness and genetics?
All forms of giftedness are due to a combination of genetic and social factors
In addition to IQ and achievement tests, what other method is commonly used to identify giftedness?
One of the worst misconceptions of the field of gifted education is the idea that
giftedness and mental illness are linked
All the following are arguments have been used against special education for children who are gifted except that
students labeled as gifted develop more emotional problems that do students with similar ability who are not so labeled
A reason for a low percentage of students identified as gifted from low socioeconomic status and those living in remote geographical areas is
lack of access to materials
Research suggests that fair proportionality of ethnic groups identified for gifted education programs could be achieved if all of the following efforts are made except
use of quota system
The largest group of neglected students with gifts and/or talents is
Additional experiences provided to students without placing them in a higher grade are known as
Gifted and talented students do best when they receive instruction
that includes continuous assessments
Preschool children with special gifts and talents need the freedom to
study with older children in specific areas
Probably the central issue in the education of adolescent with special gifts and talents is that of
acceleration versus erichment