Ch. 8 Families

d
Today’s parent-adolescent relationships are viewed as
A) one-way processes.
B) collaborative.
C) adversarial.
D) reciprocal.
b
Bianca’s parents fight constantly. As a result, they ignore her. Lately Bianca has begun to stay out late and to hang out with much older friends. Bianca’s parents’ conflict is having a(n) _____ effect on her behavior.
A) indirect
B) direct
C) overt
D) covert
b
Which of the following, according to research, is the MOST stressful to adolescents during the apex of pubertal growth?
A) changes in schooling
B) conflict with parents
C) conflict with peers
D) moving towards independence
d
Cognitive changes in adolescence that contribute to change in parent-adolescent relationships include all of the following EXCEPT
A) more logical reasoning.
B) increased idealistic thought.
C) changes in the expectations adolescents and parents have for each other.
D) decreased cognitive sophistication.
d
According to research, when Kahlid, age 14, begins to question his parents’ authority and resist their standards, his parents may
A) put pressure on him to conform.
B) let him do as he pleases.
C) calmly discuss his attitudes and behavior with him.
D) do any of these.
b
Elise’s parents give her information on an upcoming college fair and talk to her about her potential career choices. Elise’s parents are acting as
A) co-parents.
B) managers.
C) collaborators.
D) controllers.
A
Which of the following statements regarding parents as managers is NOT true?
A) Fathers are more likely than mothers to have a managerial role in parenting.
B) Mothers are more likely than fathers to have a managerial role in parenting.
C) Family management practices are positively related to students’ grades.
D) Family management practices are negatively related to school problems.
a
Which of the following statements regarding adolescents’ disclosure to parents about their activities is TRUE?
A) Disclosure is linked to positive adolescent adjustment.
B) Younger adolescents are more likely than older adolescents to lie to parents if they are concerned about parental disapproval.
C) Older adolescents are more likely than younger adolescents to disclose engagement in risk-taking behavior.
D) Adolescents are more likely to disclose information on matters of privacy than risky actions.
a
Michael’s parents never discuss their rules. If he asks for an explanation, they answer, “Because I said so; that’s all the explanation you need.” Michael’s parents are using which style of parenting?
A) authoritarian
B) authoritative
C) neglectful
D) indulgent
d
Research has found that the result of authoritarian parenting is often adolescents who are
A) angry and hostile.
B) antisocial.
C) obsessive-compulsive.
D) socially incompetent.
c
Maureen’s parents have clear, reasonable rules, which they communicate and enforce. They also are warm and nurturing towards Maureen and her siblings. Maureen’s parents are using which of Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting?
A) indulgent
B) collaborative
C) authoritative
D) authoritarian
c
Delany’s parents are uninvolved in her life. She comes and goes as she pleases and she has the sense that she doesn’t matter very much to her parents. Delaney’s parents are using which of Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting?
A) authoritative
B) authoritarian
C) neglectful
D) incompetent
b
Adolescents whose parents are not involved with their lives and who do not monitor their activities in any way tend to
A) lack self-efficacy.
B) lack self-control.
C) be shy and withdrawn.
D) be socially competent.
d
Bryan’s parents give him anything he wants and do not expect anything from him. They tried to involve him in family chores, but he just ignored them. Bryan’s parents are using which of Diana Baurind’s parenting styles?
A) authoritative
B) incompetent
C) authoritarian
D) indulgent
d
Indulgent parenting has been associated with _____ in adolescents.
A) appreciation
B) altruism
C) social competence
D) lack of self-control
c
Which of the following statements about authoritative parents is NOT true?
A) They establish an appropriate balance between control and autonomy.
B) They provide warmth and parental involvement.
C) Their children are less receptive to parental influences than other styles of parenting.
D) They are likely to encourage expression of adolescents’ views.
c
Ruth Chao argues that Asian-American parents are more likely to use the parenting style of ______, rather than authoritarian parenting.
A) guidance
B) affiliation
C) training
D) obedience
d
Which of the following statements about parenting is TRUE?
A) Consistent parenting is recommended.
B) Many parents use a combination of techniques.
C) Parents and adolescents socialize each other.
D) All of these are true.
d
Don is an African American teen who lives in a low-income neighborhood with his parents. Don’s father works two jobs to provide for his family but he always has time to listen to Don, and their weekly “burger and bowling” night is something that they both enjoy. According to research, Don is more likely than his counterparts who do not have a close relationship with their fathers to
A) go to college.
B) stay out of jail.
C) have good mental health.
D) do all of these.
b
Jasmine’s parents undermine each other when it comes to the discipline of their children. All of the children know that if Mom says, “No,” they just have to ask Dad, and they will get what they want. Jasmine’s father frequently refers to her mother as “the wimp,” and the children know that their father has no respect for their mother. This type of parenting is likely to result in children who are
A) bullies and aggressive towards their peers.
B) at developmental risk.
C) socially competent despite their dysfunctional parents.
D) none of these.
d
Which of the following statements about conflict between adolescents and parents is TRUE?
A) Parent-adolescent conflict increases from early adolescence to late adolescence.
B) Recent research shows that Hall’s conception of adolescence as a time of “storm and stress” is probably true.
C) Parent-child conflict is stronger than parent-early adolescent conflict.
D) Conflict between parents and adolescents is highest in early adolescence.
a
Lori and her parents frequently have conflict over the amount of time she spends talking on the phone to her friends. Carl’s parents nag him about how much time he spends text messaging his buddies. Both Lori and Carl are experiencing conflicts with their parents that are
A) fairly typical of the issues that lead adolescents and their parents to be in conflict.
B) atypical; most parents focus on larger issues like drinking or truancy.
C) atypical in that the conflicts are common; most parents rarely have conflict with their teens.
D) none of these
c
42. Adolescents are most likely to have conflict with their
A) fathers.
B) siblings.
C) mothers.
D) romantic partners.
c
The ability to relinquish childlike dependencies on parents is called
A) familial independence.
B) financial autonomy.
C) emotional autonomy.
D) none of these
d
Which of the following teens is most likely to run away from home?
A) Ali, who wants to be with her boyfriend, but is banned by her parents from seeing him.
B) Jeff, whose parents are heroin addicts and often have no food in the house.
C) Jeremy, whose parents fight constantly, to the point that he feels like he is living in a “war zone.”
D) All of these teens are likely to run away from home.
b
Caitlin, age 17, wants to move out of her home and move in with her 20-year-old friend, Liza. Caitlin’s parents have gradually allowed her to have a car and a part-time job and to make her own decisions about her activities, but they forbid her to move out at this time. No matter how hard Caitlin pushes, her parents remain firm. This example illustrates
A) an authoritarian, controlling parenting style.
B) relinquishing control in areas where the adolescent can make mature decisions.
C) parental fear of the “empty nest.”
D) alienation of family members.
b
Myra, age 9 months, crawls away from her mother while visiting a friend’s home. Myra periodically looks back to see that her mother is there and then ventures out a little further into the new environment. According to attachment theorists, Myra is displaying
A) anxious attachment.
B) secure attachment.
C) resistant attachment.
D) ambivalent attachment.
c
Which of the following statements about insecure attachment is NOT true?
A) Infants avoid the caregiver in insecure attachment situations.
B) Infants may show ambivalence towards the caregiver in insecure attachment situations.
C) Insecure attachment has little bearing on later development beyond infancy.
D) Insecure attachment has been theorized to be related to later relationship difficulties.
d
The type of insecure attachment in which the adolescent and the parent may mutually distance themselves from each other is
A) preoccupied/ambivalent attachment.
B) autonomous attachment.
C) symbiotic attachment.
D) dismissing/avoidant attachment.
c
Cody has tried for years to get close to his parents, but now at age 16, he has decided that the effort is not worth it. At this point, he basically shares a living space with them with very little interaction. This is an example of which type of attachment?
A) laissez-faire
B) unresolved/disorganized
C) dismissing/avoidant
D) symbiotic
a?
Research has shown that adolescents who have a dismissing/avoidant attachment to their parents may display
A) disorientation.
B) anger.
C) confusion.
D) aggression.
d
Yasmine’s parents are inconsistently available to her. When she tries to get close to them and they don’t have time for her, she becomes angry. Yasmine has a(n) ________ attachment to her parents.
A) mixed
B) hostile
C) unresolved/disoriented
D) preoccupied/ambivalent
b
The attachment type that is most associated with traumatic experiences is
A) dismissing/avoiding.
B) unresolved/disorganized.
C) preoccupied/ambivalent.
D) none of these.
c
The old model of parent-adolescent relationships suggests that _____, while the new model suggests that _____.
A) parent-adolescent conflict is moderate; parent-adolescent conflict is intense
B) as adolescents mature, they move towards their parents for continued support; as they mature, adolescents detach themselves from parents
C) conflict between parents and adolescents is intense; conflict between parents and adolescents is moderate
D) parents serve as support systems that allow adolescents to explore a more complex social world; parents are invested in keeping adolescents as close to home as possible
c
Gina, age 22, is securely attached to her parents. Recent research on attachment and the emerging adult would suggest that Gina should have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
A) resilience.
B) optimism.
C) poor coping skills under stress.
D) emotional control.
c
Which of the following statements about intergenerational relationships is TRUE?
A) There is no evidence to show that early supportive relationships with parents are linked to the quality of the parent-young adult relationship.
B) Individuals who spent quality time with their parents as children provided as much support to older parents as did children who spent little time with their parents.
C) Females have an especially important role in connecting family relationships across generations..
D) Sons who experienced long-term lack of trust during adolescence were more alienated from their parents than daughters who had the same experience.
b
Judy Dunn has described three important characteristics of sibling relationships: familiarity and intimacy of the relationship, variation in sibling relationships, and
A) parent favoritism between and among siblings.
B) emotional quality of the relationship.
C) trust level of the relationship.
D) conflict level of the relationship.
c
Research has shown that parents favoring one sibling over another is linked to
A) anger and rebellion in the less-favored sibling.
B) eating disorders in the less-favored sibling.
C) sadness and lower self-esteem in the less-favored sibling.
D) anxiety in the more-favored sibling.
a
Recent longitudinal studies on the effects of sibling conflict found that increased sibling conflict was linked to all of the following EXCEPT
A) increased peer competence.
B) depression.
C) antisocial behavior.
D) poor peer relationships.
c
Which of the following statements about birth order is TRUE?
A) Birth order is a strong predictor of adolescent behavior.
B) The importance of birth order has been underestimated.
C) Birth order shows a limited capacity to predict adolescent behavior.
D) Birth order has not been adequately studied.
c
Which of the following adolescents is MOST likely to have a positive relationship with a sibling?
A) Hannah, whose easy temperament is the opposite of her brother’s difficult temperament.
B) Elsie, whose difficult temperament is the same as her sister’s difficult temperament.
C) Colleen, who shares an easy temperament with her brother.
D) Hayden, whose parents treat her and her sister differently.
c
It is likely that what percentage of children born to married parents will experience their parents’ divorce?
A) 20 percent
B) 30 percent
C) 40 percent
D) 50 percent
d
In a study on the effects of divorce on children conducted by Hetherington and colleagues, what percentage of the children from divorced families were found to have emotional problems?
A) 10 percent
B) 15 percent
C) 20 percent
D) 25 percent
c
A recent study revealed that adolescent girls with divorced parents were especially vulnerable to
A) dating violence.
B) anorexia nervosa.
C) depression.
D) bulimia.
b
Penny’s parents are still married but they have a high degree of marital conflict. According to research, Penny is more likely than her peers whose parents are happily married to
A) engage in self-injurious behaviors, like cutting.
B) develop emotional problems.
C) develop an eating disorder.
D) develop a conduct disorder.
a
Research suggests all of the following about the consequences of divorce EXCEPT that
A) the majority of adolescents and emerging adults have significant adjustments if their parents divorced.
B) the majority of adolescents and emerging adults do not have significant adjustment problems if their parents divorced.
C) marital conflict, with or without divorce, has negative consequences for emotional development.
D) most adolescents and emerging adults cope well with parental divorce.
b
Which of the following statements about the risk-benefit comparison of divorce to retaining a marriage is NOT true?
A) If major stressors for children will be reduced by divorce, divorce might be advantageous.
B) Divorce is always not in the best interest of children or adolescents.
C) If parents will be more incompetent by a divorce, staying together might be better for children.
D) Sometimes remaining in an unhappy marriage is actually a better alternative to divorce.
a
Which of the following statements about disengagement from parents is TRUE?
A) About 10 percent of adolescents from nondivorced families become disengaged.
B) About 60 percent of adolescents from divorced families become disengaged.
C) Disengagement is higher for girls than for boys in divorced families.
D) Even with the presence of supportive mentors, disengagement from families is a poor choice.
a??
Which of the following has been shown to be related to poor adjustment among children and adolescents after their parents’ divorce?
A) the timing of the divorce; children and adolescents whose parents divorce later experience more issues
B) having an easy temperament
C) high social maturity
D) high levels of responsibility
c
Which of the following statements about custody arrangements in divorced families is NOT true?
A) Children benefit from joint custody.
B) Girls adjust better in mother-custody families.
C) Boys adjust better in mother-custody families.
D) Boys adjust better in father-custody families.
a
Jeremy’s parents have divorced. If Jeremy’s situation is typical of many divorced families, he can expect that
A) his mother will have less money than when she was married.
B) his mother will have more money than when she was married, due to child support and alimony payments.
C) his standard of living will increase slightly.
D) none of these will happen.
d
Compared to first marriages, the divorce rate for remarriages is
A) 20 percent lower.
B) 20 percent higher.
C) 15 percent higher.
D) 10 percent higher.
c
Before Justin’s father remarried, Justin was responsible for mowing the grass, putting the dishes in the dishwasher, and doing his own laundry. Now that Kim has married into the family, Justin is not sure which of his responsibilities he should continue to do. Justin is experiencing
A) boundary strain.
B) role discontinuity.
C) boundary ambiguity.
D) cognitive dissonance.
a
The term “latchkey children” refers to those children who
A) are unsupervised from after school until their parents return from work.
B) go to after-school programs for two hours and then are alone at home for less than one hour.
C) are watched by their neighbors after school.
D) remain at school in special programs, called “latchkey programs,” until a parent gets them.
a
Compared to those cared for at home, children and young adolescents who are in out-of-home care have a higher risk of
A) delinquency.
B) eating disorders.
C) anxiety.
D) obesity.
a
Research shows that which of the following statements about adoptive children and adolescents is TRUE?
A) The earlier adoption occurred, the fewer the problems the adoptees had.
B) Children adopted after seven years of age had the most problems.
C) Being adopted had no impact on the psychological health of the adoptees.
D) Being adopted had no impact on the academic performance of adoptees.
d
Adopted adolescents are more likely than nonadopted adolescents to
A) have contact with a mental-health professional.
B) have learning disabilities.
C) engage in prosocial behaviors.
D) all of these.
c
Parents of adopted children have the additional challenges of
A) dealing with children’s inevitable antisocial behaviors at some point.
B) protecting the children from contact with their birth parents.
C) supporting the adolescent’s search for identity and self.
D) dealing with academic problems and learning disabilities.
c
The largest group of adolescents with gay and lesbian parents are likely those who
A) were adopted.
B) were conceived though artificial insemination.
C) were born in the context of heterosexual relationships of one of their parents.
D) are in foster care.
a
Ashley, age 17, lives with her biological mother and her mother’s lesbian partner, Daryl. According to researchers, Ashley is likely to
A) develop a heterosexual identity.
B) develop a bisexual identity.
C) suffer more mental health problems than her peers raised in heterosexual homes.
D) have fewer friends than her peers being raised in heterosexual homes.