CH 5 International Marketing Test 2

Which of the following is true of adaptation in international marketing?
Willingness to adapt is a crucial attitude in international marketing.
Business customs can be grouped into:
imperatives, electives, and exclusives.
_____ are the business customs and expectations that must be met and conformed to or avoided if relationships are to be successful.
Cultural imperatives
Business customs that must be recognized and accommodated are called _____.
imperatives
Business customs to which adaptation is helpful but not necessary are called _____.
electives
Business customs in which an outsider must not participate are called _____.
exclusives
Which of the following would most likely be characterized as being an imperative business custom in many cultures?
Establishing friendships.
Simon Peters, a senior manager at Celise Export Logistics, goes for a meeting in France to negotiate a deal with the company’s French partners. He dresses casually in a t-shirt and jeans. His French counterparts call off the meeting and accuse him of taking a casual attitude toward negotiations. In the context of this scenario, dressing formally during business meetings is probably a cultural _____ for the French.
imperative
Betty Roberts became an embarrassment to her company when she joked about the ruling monarchy in England in front of a group of visiting English businesspeople. She should have known that political ridicule by a foreigner is rarely accepted. Ms. Roberts has violated what is known as a cultural _____.
exclusive
Which of the following could be the least acceptable behavior in a business setting, especially in a cross-cultural scenario?
Correcting someone in public.
Which of the following views is consistent with normative U.S. cultural concepts?
Independent enterprise is an instrument for social action.
Which philosophy of U.S. management recognizes that people influence the future to a large extent and that they control their own fates?
“Master of destiny” viewpoint.
There is a very strong belief in the United States that business decisions must be supported and based on accurate and relevant information. Which of the following best describes this approach?
Objective analysis
Which of the following is consistent with the American view of the independent enterprise?
A corporation is an entity that has rules and continuity of existence.
The recognition of U.S. corporations as entities that have rules and continuity of existence and are separate, vital social institutions can result in:
feelings of obligation among employees to serve the company.
Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations stated, “By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intended to promote it.” What behavior does this notion attempt to justify?
Competitiveness
The notion that _____ is crucial for efficiency, improvement, and regeneration is fundamental to Western management practices.
competition
In _____ decision making, participation by middle management tends to be deemphasized.
top-level management
As businesses grow and professional management develops, there is a shift toward:
decentralized management decision making.
A characteristic of committee decision making is that it is:
by group or consensus.
Which of the following forms of business decision making is predominant in most Asian countries?
Group
In _____ decision making, title or position generally takes precedence over the individual holding the job.
decentralized
Companies in _____ countries have a strong paternalistic orientation, and assume that individuals will work for one company for the majority of their lives.
more hierarchical
In the context of management objectives and aspirations, which of the following is true of an employee’s personal life?
To the Japanese, personal life is company life.
Research has shown that commitment of workers to their companies tended to be higher in countries
higher in individualism and lower in power distance.
According to Max Weber, at least part of the standard of living in the United States today can be attributed to the:
hard-working Protestant ethic.
Which of the following aspects of communication is more important in a low-context culture?
Explicit communication
According to the high-context/low-context continuum identified by Edward T. Hall, communication in a low-context culture depends on:
the verbal expression.
Fredrick Keeble, an American manager, took his Swiss client out for a traditional American dinner. The client did not seem to enjoy the food and left most of it untouched. After dinner, he asked his client if he had enjoyed the dinner. Which of the following responses would indicate that the client comes from a low-context culture?
No, I did not like the food.
Which of the following is the best means of solving the problem of language on the Internet?
Having country-specific websites so that everyone can communicate in their own language.
France is higher on Hofstede’s Power Distance Index (PDI) than the United States and formality still reigns in France. Which of the following American business practices would be most unacceptable to the French?
Using first names in business encounters.
_____ is probably the most common mistake of North Americans attempting to trade in the Middle East
Impatience
Western cultures like most North Americans, Swiss, Germans, and Scandinavians tend to concentrate on one thing at a time and are typified by _____ time.
monochronic
_____ is more dominant in high-context cultures, where the completion of a human transaction is emphasized more than holding to schedules.
Polychronic time
Kan is a customer relations manager with a leading multinational firm. He has managed various operations and deals with numerous domestic and international clients everyday. Despite his hectic schedule, Kan never cuts a meeting short with anyone and frequently postpones subsequent meetings in order to devote ample time to each of his clients. Which of the following countries is he most probably from?
Japan
People in Brazil describe themselves as late arrivers, allow greater flexibility in defining early and late, are less concerned about being late, and are more likely to blame external factors for their lateness. Which system of time do the Brazilian people most likely operate on?
Polychronic time
When compared to people operating on P-time, people operating on M-time:
tend to concentrate on one thing at a time.
A firm whose marketing orientation is based on the belief that consumers and businesses alike will not buy enough without prodding is _____ oriented.
selling
Which of the following is true of the effect of differences in culture in business negotiations
The risk of misunderstanding increases when negotiating with someone from a different culture.
Which of the following is true of P-time and M-time?
As global markets expand, more businesspeople from P-time cultures are adapting to M-time.
Which of the following best explains the low percentage of women chosen for international assignments in the United States?
There is a wide spread belief that roles of women in male-dominated societies precludes women from being successful in these societies.
In the context of business ethics, which of the following factors kept the American economy afloat at the turn of the century?
Rampant consumerism
In the context of business ethics, many people in sub-Saharan Africa view Western _____ as a kind of exploitation that prevents treatment of AIDS for millions.
intellectual property laws
Which organization conducts an international survey of businesspeople, political analysts, and the general public on corruption and compiles the Corruption Perception Index (CPI)?
Transparency International (TI).
Which of the following is true of the findings of Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index?
Higher levels of bribery have been found in low-income nations.
Which of the following is true of the business community’s view about payoffs?
Many global competitors perceive payoffs as a necessary means to accomplish business goals.
Academic studies of the causes and consequences of bribery, conducted by Transparency International (TI), indicate corruption is greater in:
collectivistic nations.
Which aspect of Japanese culture, predicted by many to favor bribery, makes Japan’s success in reducing corruption more remarkable?
Relationship-orientation
Which of the following countries is more likely to exhibit higher levels of bribery?
Nations with a communist past.
_____ occurs when payments are extracted under duress by someone in authority from a person seeking only what he or she is lawfully entitled to
Extortion
_____ involves a relatively small sum of cash, a gift, or a service that is intended to facilitate or expedite the normal, lawful performance of a duty by an official.
Lubrication
The finance minister of a developing country demands a heavy payment for approval of a multi-million dollar contract with a foreign company. This practice would be called _____.
extortion
_____ generally involves giving large sums of money—frequently not properly accounted for—designed to entice an official to commit an illegal act on behalf of the one offering the bribe.
Subornation
A manager hires an agent to obtain a license to build a warehouse in an industrial district. The agent was caught offering a bribe to a government official for issue of the license. Which of the following describes the manager’s liabilities?
The manager is liable if he was aware of the fact that part of the agent’s fee would be used as a bribe.
Which of the following ethical principles tries to optimize the “common good” or benefits of all constituencies?
Utilitarian ethics
According to Lester Thurow, a(n) _____ form of capitalism is practiced in Japan and Germany typified by cooperation among government, management, and labor
communitarian
According to Lester Thurow, in the British-American “individualistic” kind of capitalism relationships among government, management, and labor in business systems are _____.
adversarial
A culture that is low context, individualistic, low power distance, and uses monochromic time is _____.
information-oriented
A culture that is high context, has collectivism, high power distance, and uses polychronic time is _____.
relationship-oriented