Ch 5 ; Ch 6 Hospitality Management

Empowering staff members can be a viable solution for hospitality companies as they search for ways to excel while dealing with a variety of challenging issues such as the need to meet and exceed the rising expectations of guests, do more with less, address staff shortages, comply with increased regulations requiring significant dedication of resources, and meet the needs of staff members who want to be involved in problem solving and decision making.
True empowerment prompts a decentralization of power and redefinition of responsibilities for?
managers, supervisors, employees
_______ is defined as the ability to influence the behavior of others.
Power
_____________ is defined as the redistribution of power within an organization that enables managers, supervisors, and employees, to perform their jobs more efficiently and effectively.
Empowerement
___________ organizations have power structures that place most decision making authority at top management levels.
Centralized
____________ organizations have power structures that place decision making authority at the lowest organizational levels.
Decentralized
The degree of centralization or decentralization within a company is not determined by how tall or how flat a company’s structure appears on an organization?
chart
Large companies with tall structures are not necessarily highly?
centralized organizations
In times of financial crisis, a high degree of ___________ may be most appropriate; investors, creditors, and the managers and staff of a financially troubled organization generally expect top managers to take control of the situation and work out the crisis.
centralization
_____________ may be most appropriate for organizations that face stiff competition in fast-changing market or business conditions.
Decentralization
The culture of an organization also affects how power is?
distributed
Changing the structure of power within an organization can be?
difficult
When companies become more _________, power is taken away from middle and lower management levels and given to top level managers, and the former group may resent the loss of power, status, and prestige within the company.
centralized
When companies become more ________________, power is taken from higher level managers and given to middle and lower mangers.
decentralized
When companies become more decentralized, power is taken from higher level managers and given to middle and lower?
managers
The downsizing or “rightsizing” efforts of many hospitality companies are primarily attempts to reduce?
costs
To be effective, downsizing must be more than just cutting staff it must include a real redistribution of power and decision making?
responsibility
Excessively centralized organizations are generally characterized as top down command and control systems with multiple levels of?
management
Procedures established by upper management start to control not only the actions of staff members, but their thoughts as well, a phenomenon known as?
Learned helplessness
Over centralization can breed an organization of individuals paralyzed by?
learned helplessness
When the general manager is the only one in the hotel who sees the entire picture of operations, department managers can’t see beyond the edges of their boxes on the organization?
chart
Focusing solely on the activities of their own departments , department managers lose the wider perspective needed to identify and solve problems that cut across?
functional areas
Highly Decentralized organization are typically characterized as bottom up leadership and support systems with relatively few levels of?
management
Reporting and monitoring functions are designed to support the initiatives of lower level managers rather than direct and?
control their actions
Decentralization and empowerment begin with changes in the leadership roles of top?
managers
The _____ of leadership should include where the company is today, where it is going tomorrow, why it is heading in that direction, and how it will get there.
vision
Decentralization can create an organization of empowered managers and staff members who have an understanding of the entire?
operation
When an organization has been decentralized department managers learn to see and think beyond the boundaries of their boxes on the organization chart and to cooperate with other?
departments
Decentralized management focuses on the values, mission, and goals of the organization as a?
whole
Decentralized management works together to identify and solve problems that cut across?
functional areas
Focusing on the values, mission, and goals of the organization as a whole, and working together to to identify and solve problems that cut across functional areas is an approach to?
organizational success
The fundamentals of power and authority apply equally to organizations that are?
centralized or decentralized
_______ is the ability to influence the behavior of others.
power
__________ is the formal power granted by the organization to a management position.
authority
An important aspect of authority is that the power is vested in the _______, not the?
position, individual
A manager exercises authority when making decisions, issuing orders, and using resources to achieve departmental and organizational?
goals
In addition to power, authority carries with it ______________ and ____________.
responsibility, accountability
Managers with authority accept responsibility for their for their?
Decisions
Managers with authority accept responsibility for their for their decisions, and must justify their actions to those above them in the chain of?
command
The _____ of ________ is represented on an organization chart by an unbroken line of authority linking all positions within the organization and specifying formal reporting relationships.
chain, command
A managers authority should be commensurate with the responsibility of his or her position within the?
organization
When managers are given responsibility but insufficient authority to take the necessary steps they must rely on the higher ups to get the job?
done
When the authority of managers exceeds their responsibility departments can become empires and the organization embroiled in?
turmoil
*Position power is also referred to as?
legitimate power
*_______ power stems from the formal authority granted to a position within the hierarchy of an organization.
position
*________ power results from a manager’s authority to provide rewards for employees.
Reward
*________ power stems from a manager’s or supervisor’s authority to withhold rewards or inflict punishment.
Coercive
*______ power stems from an individual’s special knowledge or skill in relation to tasks performed by members of his or her staff.
expert
*__________ power results from the admiration and respect that others have for an individuals’s personal characteristics and interpersonal skills.
Referent
^What are the 3 general responses to a managers use of power?
commitment, compliance, resistance
^Expert power and referent power are power from?
personal sources
^Expert power and referent power are most likely to produce staff?
commitment
^Position power and reward power are most likely to generate staff?
compliance
^Coercive power most often generates staff?
resistance
Increasing the flexibility of their jobs, becoming an important part of the organization’s information loop and thereby increasing their visibility, Promoting the importance of their work are all ways a manager can enhance their?
position power
Position power can _______ when the vast majority of a manager’s time is taken up with routine activities.
diminish
The regularly assigned duties and responsibilities are the foundation of a manager’s?
position power
Managers can enhance their personal power by promoting their current achievements and abilities, by refining their interpersonal skills, and by obtaining more specialized knowledge.
To enhance their personal power and increase their spheres of influence within an organization is to tap the power of others by forming strategic alliances managers can enhance their?
personal power
Power alliances are effective when a plan of action requires that managers in several areas work together to influence the behaviors of others