Ch 4- Perception, Attribution, and the Management of Diversity

Perception
The process by which individuals select, organize, and interpret the input from their senses
Perceiver, target of perception, situation
The 3 components of perception
Accurate perceptions
Perceptions as close as possible to the true nature of the target of perception
Schemas, motivational state, mood
Characteristics of the perceiver
Schema
Abstract knowledge structure stored in memory that makes possible the organization and interpretation of info about a target of population
Stereotype
Set of overly simplified and often inaccurate beliefs about the typical characteristics of a particular group; dysfunctional schemas
Perceiver’s motivational state
The needs, values, and desires of a perceiver at the time of perception
Perceiver’s mood
How a perceiver feels at the time of perception
Social status
A person’s real or perceived position in society or in an org
Impression management
An attempt to control the perceptions or impressions of others
Behavioral matching, self promotion, conforming, flattery, being consistent
Impression management tactics
Salience
Extent to which a target of perception stands out in a group of people or things
Subjective; affects
Perception is a _______ process and salience _______ how a target is perceived
Causes of salience
Being novel, being figural, being inconsistent with other people’s expectations
Bias
Systematic tendency to use or interpret info in a way that results in inaccurate perceptions
Sources of bias
Primary effects, contrast effect, halo effect, similar to me effect, harshness/leniency/average tendency, knowledge of predictor
Primary effect
Biased perception that results when the first information that a perceiver has about a target has an inordinately large influence on the perceiver’ perception of the target
Contrast effect
The biased perception that results when perceptions of a target person are distorted by the perceiver’s perception of others
Halo effect
Biased perception that results when the perceiver’s general impression of a target distorts his or her perception of the target on specific dimensions
Knowledge of predictor bias
The biased perception that results when knowing a target’s standing on a predictor of performance influences the perceiver’s perception of the target
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Prediction that comes true because a perceiver expects it to come true
Attribution
Explanation of the cause of behavior
Attribution theory
Group of theories that describes how people explain the causes of behavior
Internal attribution
Attribution that assigns the cause of behavior to some characteristic of the target
Ability, personality, motivation
Internal attribution examples
External attribution
Attribution that assigns the cause of behavior to outside forces
Task difficulty, luck
External attribution examples
Fundamental attribution, actor-observer, self-serving
Attributional biases
Fundamental attribution error
Tendency to over attribute behavior to internal rather than to external causes
Actor-observer effect
Tendency to attribute the behavior of other to internal causes and to attribute one’s own behavior to external causes
Self serving attribution
The tendency to take credit for successes and avoid blame for failure
Top management commitment to diversity, diversity training, education, mentoring programs
Effectively managing a diverse workforce
Mentoring
Process through which an experienced member of an org (the mentor) provides advice and guidance to a less experienced member (the protege) and helps the less experienced person learn the ropes and do the right things to advance in the org
Quid pro quo sexual harassment
Requesting/forcing an employee to perform sexual favors in order to receive some opportunity or avoid a negative consequence
Hostile work environment sexual harassment
Creating or maintaining a work environment that is offensive, intimidation, or hostile because of a person’s sex