Ch.4 Computer Concepts

A(n) ____ system is a type of system software that acts as the master controller for all activities that take place within a computer system.
operating
The operating system, application software, and ____ are organized similar to the chain of command in an army.
device drivers
____ provides process and memory management services that allow two or more tasks, jobs, or programs to run simultaneously.
Multitasking
Within a single program, ____ allows multiple parts to run simultaneously.
multithreading
An operating system’s ____ capability supports a division of labor among all the processing units.
multiprocessing
The term ____ is a technical term for the region of memory that holds data waiting to be transferred from one device to another.
buffer
The strengths of Microsoft Windows include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
reliability
The strengths of Mac OS do NOT include ____.
its use of resource forks
VMWare and Parallels Desktop software are examples of ____.
virutal machine software
Weaknesses of Mac OS include ____.
limited selection of applications
In the Mac OS, the resource ____ stores information about the data.
fork
The operating system that was developed in 1969 by AT&T’s Bell Labs and gained a good reputation for its dependability is ____.
UNIX
____ was developed by a Finnish student. It continues to gain popularity as an operating system for personal computers. It is distributed under the terms of a GPL.
LINUX
A Linux ____ contains the Linux kernel, system utilities, GUI, applications, and installation routine.
distribution
The significance of ____ data is that it cannot be intercepted by corporate spies or government censors.
encrypted
An optional file identifier that is separated from a main file name by a period is a ____.
file extension
The main directory maintained by your computer’s operating system is the ____ directory.
root
A computer file’s location is defined by a ____.
file specification
In the accompanying figure, C: is an example of a(n) ____.
drive
In the accompanying figure, Music is an example of a ____.
primary folder
n the accompanying figure, Reggae is an example of a ____.
secondary folder
In the accompanying figure, Marley One Love is an example of a ____.
file name
In the accompanying figure, mp3 is an example of a ____.
file extension
An extension of .sys designates a ____ type of file.
configuration
An extension of .ocx designates a ____ type of file.
support
An extension of .wav designates a ____ type of file.
sound
File management capabilities available from application software include ____ files.
all of the above
A file ____, in the context of Windows, is a piece of information that describes a file.
tag
The accompanying figure is an example of a(n) ____ utility.
file management
Utilities, like the one shown in the accompanying figure, often use some sort of storage metaphor to help you visualize and mentally organize the files on your disks. The metaphors are called ____ storage models.
logical
Using Microsoft Windows products, like the one in the accompanying figure, to select files and folders which are not listed consecutively, ____.
click on each file while holding down the Ctrl key
Using Microsoft Windows products, like the one in the accompanying figure, to select files and folders which are listed consecutively, ____.
click on the first and last file while holding down the Shift key
A description of what actually happens on the disk and in the circuits is represented by a ____.
physical storage model
Most hard disks are formatted by the ____.
factory
____ is the process of creating a CD, DVD, or BD by selecting all the files and then copying them in a single session.
Disc mastering
In relation to disks, ____ is a recording technology that lets you record in multiple sessions.
packet writing
A group of sectors is called a ____.
cluster
The file system used by Mac OS is ____.
HFS+
The file system used by Windows 8 is ____.
NTFS
To delete data from a disk in such a way that no one can ever read it, you should ____.
use special file shredder software
Files stored in noncontiguous clusters are ____.
fragmented
If your backups are ____, keep them in a safe place.
local
Web sites that offer storage space for backups are called ____ backup services.
online
An easy way to back up your important data is simply by copying selected files to a ____.
USB flash drive
You should consider making backups of your ____.
all of the above
____ compares the content of files on two devices and makes them the same.
Synchronization
A(n) ____ system backup includes a copy of every file stored on your computer’s hard drive. In addition to data files, it includes copies of all installed programs, settings, and the operating system.
full
A(n) ____ backup contains any files that were added or changed since the last full backup.
differential
A(n) ____ backup makes a copy of only those files that were added or changed since your last backup.
incremental
A(n) ____ disk is a bootable CD, DVD, or other media that contains a complete copy of your computer’s hard disk as it existed when the computer was new.
recovery
A disk ____ is a bit-by-bit copy of the data from all sectors of a disk.
image
One file storage metaphor that is based on a hierarchical diagram is sometimes referred to as a ____ structure.
tree