CH 2: Management Theory

Peter Drucker
The creator and inventor of modern managment
evidence-based management
This type of management translates principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision-making process.
What are the two overarching perspectives about management?
historical and contemporary
Historical perspective of management
This perspective of management includes classical, behavioral, and quantitative viewpoints
Contemporary perspective of management
This perspective of management includes systems, contingency, and quality-management viewpoints.
classical viewpoint (an historical perspective of management)
Emphasizes finding ways to manage work more efficiently and assumes that people are rational.
These are the two branches associated with the classical viewpoint (an historical perspective of management).
scientific and administrative
scientific management (a classical viewpoint)
This type of management emphasizes the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers.
Who is considered to be the father of scientific management?
Frederick W. Taylor
“Soldiering”
When a worker isn’t working as efficiently as possible to reach their full capacity.
Who was the team that expanded Taylor’s motion studies to further contribute to the field of scientific management?
Frank and Lillian Gilbreath
administrative management (a classical viewpoint)
This type of management is concerned with managing the total organization.
Who was the first researcher to synthesize management behavior?
Henri Fayol
Who was the first researcher to study rational, efficient, ideal organizations based on principles of logic (bureaucracy)?
Max Weber
behavioral management (an historical perspective of management)
This type of management emphasizes the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement
This researcher proposed that managers and employees should work together cooperatively in a power sharing model.
Mary Parker Follett
This researcher suggested that psychologists could contribute to industry by studying human behavior in the workplace.
Hugo Munsterberg
This researcher and his team studied the idea that workers would be more productive if they thought they were receiving special attention form their supervisors in some way.
Elton Mayo
This is the study that drew attention to the “social man” and how managers using good human relations could improve worker productivity.
The Hawthorne Effect
human relations movement
This is the idea that better human relations can increase worker productivity.
This is the researcher who studied human motivation and determined that there is a hierarchy of human needs.
Abraham Maslow
This is the researcher who studied the connection between a supervisor’s beliefs and attitudes and their behavior toward workers.
Douglas McGregor
This movement superseded the human relations movement.
behavioral science approach to management
behavioral science approach to management (a behavioral viewpoint)
This approach relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers.
quantitative viewpoint (an historical perspective of management)
applying statistics, computer simulations, and other such quantitative methods to management
What are the two approaches to quantitative management?
management science and operations management
quantitative management (a quantitative viewpoint)
The application of quantitative techniques to management.
What are the two quantitative management branches?
management science and operations management
management science
This branch of quantitative management focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making.
operations management
This branch of quantitative management focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization’s products or services more effect
systems viewpoint (a contemporary perspective of management)
This viewpoint sees organizations as a system, either open or closed, with inputs, outputs, transformation processes, and feedback.
contingency viewpoint (a contemporary perspective of management)
This viewpoint emphasizes that a manager’s approach should vary according to the individual and environmental situation.
quality management viewpoint (a contemporary perspective of management)
This viewpoint includes a strategy for minimizing errors by managing states of production, and a focus on the performance of workers.
What are the two quality management viewpoint branches?
quality control and quality assurance
What is a system?
A set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose
A systems viewpoint regards an organization as what?
a system of interrelated parts
subsystems
the parts making up the whole system.
What are the four parts of a system?
inputs, transformation processes, outputs, and feedback
inputs
the people, money, information, equipment, and materials required to produce an organization’s goods or services
transformation processes
the organization’s capabilities in management, internal processes, and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs
outputs
the products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, etc. that are produced by the organization
feedback
the information about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affect the inputs
open system
a system that continually interacts with its environment
closed system
a system that has little interaction with its environment (receives very little feedback)
complexity theory
the study of how order and pattern arise from very complicated, apparently chaotic, systems
contingency viewpoint (a contemporary perspective of management)
a viewpoint that emphasizes that a manager’s approach should vary accor4ding to (be contingent on) the individual and the environmental situation
total quality management (TQM)
a combination of quality control and quality assurance in which there is continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction
quality
the total ability of a product or service to meet customer needs
quality control
a strategy for minimizing errors by managing each state of production
quality assurance
a strategy that focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for “zero defects” in goods
learning organizations
an organization that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge
What are the three key functions (roles) that managers must play in order to create a learning organization?
build a commitment to learning, work to generate ideas with impact, and work to generalize ideas with impact