Ch. 16 Pain management, comfort, rest, sleep (Foundations)

acute pain
intense, unpleasant sensation of short duration, lasting less than 6 months
chronic pain
pain lasting longer than 6 months; can be as intense as acute pain; can be continuous or intermittent
endorphins
any one of the neuropeptides composed of many amino acids, elaborated by the pituitary gland and acting on the central and peripheral nervous systems to reduce pain
gate control theory
suggests that pain impulses can be regulated or even blocked by gating mechanisms located along the central nervous system
non-rapid eye movement (NREM)
one of two highly individualized sleeping states divided into four stages through which a sleep progresses during a typical sleeping cycle; represents three fourths of a period of typical sleep
noxious
a stimulation of the sensory nerve endings that is harmful, injurious, or detrimental to physical health
patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)
a drug delivery system that delivers a preset intravenous dose of an opioid analgesic into a patient’s vein when the patient pushes a switch on an electrical card
rapid eye movement (REM)
one of the two stages of sleep that is important for brain and cognitive restoration. changes in cerebral blood and increase in cortical activity, oxygen consumption, and epinephrine release which are beneficial to memory storage and learning.
referred pain
pain that is felt at a site other than in the injured or diseased organ
synergistic
action of two or more substances or organs to achieve an effect of each is capable
transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS)
a type of pain that is controlled that is managed with a pocket size, battery operated device that provides a continuous, mild electrolyte to the skin via electrodes
visual analog scale
an objective means of assessing pain severity; it consists of a straight line, representing a continuum of intensity, and has visual descriptions at teach end