CH 16-PAIN MANAGEMENT COMFORT REST & SLEEP

ACUTE PAIN
Intense & short of duration, usually lasting less than 6 months.
CHRONIC PAIN
Generally characterized as pain lasting longer than 6 months. Can be continuous or intermittent & can be as intense as acute pain.
ENDORPHINS
Potent polypeptides composed of many amino acids found in the pituitary gland & other areas of the CNS.
GATE CONTROL THEORY
Proposed by Melzack, Suggests that pain impulses can be regulated or even blocked by gating mechanisms located along the central nervous system. (Dorsal horn of the spinal cord)
NON-RAPID EYE MOVEMENT (NREM)
One of 2 highly individualized sleeping states divided into 4 stages through which a sleeper progresses during a typical sleeping cycle; Represents 3/4 of a period of typical sleep.
NOXIOUS
Injurious to physical health
PT CONTROLLED ANALGESIA (PCA)
A drug delivery system that allows the pt to administer analgesics whenever needed. — Based on the idea that the pt is in the best position to evaluate pain & pain relief & consequently determine the need for further doses. — Pt must be alert, oriented, & able to follow simple directions. — A timer prevents the system from delivering more than a specified # of doses every hour to prevent overdoses.
RAPID EYE MOVEMENT (REM)
One of the 2 highly individualized sleeping states that follows NREM state. — May last from a few minutes to a half an hour and alternate with NREM periods — Dreaming occurs during this time.
REFERRED PAIN
Felt at a site other than the injured or diseased organ or part of the body.
SYNERGISTIC
The action of 2 or more substances or organs to achieve an effect of which each is individually incapable.
TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRIC NERVE STIMULATION (TENS)
A special pain relief system that is a pocket sized, battery-operated device that provides a continuous mild electric current to the skin via electrodes that are attached to a stimulator by flexible wires.
VISUAL ANALOG SCALE
The pt marks a spot on a horizontal line to indicate pain intensity .